As in the first edition, we have included relevant information about Gender and Life Span Considerations, and have enhanced this section with information about racial and ethnic differences in health and disease. As our society has an ever-increasing diversity, we have developed this section so that practitioners have a basis from which to develop culturally competent care. Each entry begins with the Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) category. DRGs were initiated by the Health Care Financing Administration to serve as an organizing framework to grouprelated conditions and to stabilize reimbursements. Because they provide a convenient standard to evaluate hospital care, DRGs are used by institutions and disciplines to measure utilization and to allocate resources. We have included DRGs to indicate the expected norms in average length of stay for each entry. Each entry follows the nursing process, with assessment information incorporated in the History and Physical Assessment sections, the Psychosocial Assessment, and Diagnostic Highlights. Based on requests from our readers and reviewers, we have supplemented information on diagnostic testing from earlier editions to provide normal and abnormal values for the most important diagnostic tests. We have also added a section to explain the rationale for the test. These detailed, specific sections provide the foundation needed to perform a comprehensive assessment of the patient’s condition so that a Primary Nursing Diagnosis can be formulated appropriate to the patient’s specific needs. The Planning and Implementation section is divided into Collaborative and Independent interventions. The intent of the Collaborative section is to detail the goals of a multidisciplinary plan of care to manage the condition or disease. As in the second edition, there is an expanded section on Pharmacologic Highlights that explores commonly used drugs, their doses, mechanisms of action, and rationales for use. The Independent section focuses on independent nursing interventions that demonstrate the core of the art and science of nursing. Each entry then finishes with Documentation Guidelines and Discharge and Home Healthcare Guidelines to help nurses evaluate the outcomes of care and to prepare hospitalized patients for discharge. As with the first and second editions, the idea for the book originated with Joanne Patzek DaCunha, Publisher at F.A. Davis. The authors salute her creativity, perseverance, enthusiasm revision with a minimum of difficulty. We also owe a debt of gratitude to Jeff Sommers for his assistance with manuscript development, editing, proofreading, and supportive cheerleading. Finally we acknowledge with gratitude the hard work that a host of contributors made to the first edition. The entire reason to revise this book is to provide practicing nurses a concise and yet scientifically sound text to guide the professional practice of nursing. The provision of nursing care in the 21st century presents us with overwhelming challenges, and yet nursing is the discipline of choice for millions of practitioners.