Tuesday, September 8, 2015

Stem Cells for Dummies ebook pdf

The term stem cell has made its way into general usage only in the past decade or so, and, to many people, stem cell research is a new, untested, and even frightening endeavor. In truth, though, everything researchers know today about stem cells — and stem cells’ potential for medical therapies — is built on centuries of observations and discoveries about biology in a broad array of organisms. Even the ancients knew that certain animals could grow new limbs, for example.
History is replete with stories (many undocumented) of transplants and other medical miracles dating from a time when the biological “cell” wasn’t even a concept, much less part of anyone’s vocabulary. In this chapter, we recap three separate but intertwined histories of research into how living things work. One is the history of ideas about regeneration, the ability to regrow body parts that are damaged through injury or disease.
Another is the history of discovering how certain traits are passed from one generation to the next and decoding the inner workings of cells. The third is the history of medical advances since the 1950s, when new knowledge and surgical methods sparked an explosion of now-commonplace procedures like organ transplants and fertility treatments. All these ideas and concepts played a role in leading stem cell research to its status today. In fact, all of them have a role in directing today’s research toward a variety of potential future uses, such as growing organs and tissues for transplant.
In some ways, stem cell science represents a whole new world for medicine. Although scientists still have much more to discover, we know more than ever before about how the human body works, how cells and tissues and organs work together, and what goes wrong in disease. Forty years after Neil Armstrong first stepped on the moon, we’re on the brink of another giant leap for mankind — only this time the new frontier is under a microscope instead of beyond the clouds. Like most frontiers, stem cell territory is fraught with unfamiliar sights, unanticipated perils, wrong turns, dead ends, and misadventures of all kinds. In an interview with TIME magazine, Owen Witte, director of UCLA’s Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Medicine, said, “Biology is more complicated than splitting the atom” because stem cell researchers have to figure out how to create the outcomes they’re seeking and how to measure the results at the same time. Then there are the ethical considerations of stem cell research. For centuries, scientists have been portrayed in fiction and fable as doing things because they can do them and ignoring the question of whether they should do them — a perception unfortunately cemented by a few highly publicized real-life scandals. The New York Times reported in 2007 that James Thomson, whose team first isolated human embryonic stem cells, thinks the controversial aspects of the research may have kept talented scientists away from the stem cell field. In real life, most scientists and physicians are highly ethical people who would never consider creating a modern-day Frankenstein or resurrecting a Tyrannosaurus Rex. Most of these professionals shun the notoriety that comes with controversy, and few 21st-century scientific endeavors are more controversial than stem cell research.

Monday, August 10, 2015

Nursing Care of The Pediatric Neurosurgery Patient

Nursing care of the pediatric neurosurgery patient and family can be extremely
challenging and extraordinarily rewarding. Cathy Cartwright and
Donna Wallace have edited a wonderful clinical resource to assist nurses in
meeting the challenges. More than 32 contributors from 15 medical centers
have shared their expertise in 12 chapters that delineate the etiology, pathophysiology,
clinical presentation, and management of the most common
neurosurgical problems. The text, tables, illustrations, photographs, radiographs,
scans, “pediatric pearls,” and “parent perspectives” combine to
clearly present the essential information about each problem.
The more complex the illness or injury, the greater the potential contribution
of the skilled and empathetic nurse to patient and family recovery.
To paraphrase a parent quoted in this book, each child with a neurosurgical
problem will have a unique life story. Although the child’s life
story will be affected by the neurosurgical problem, it will be shaped by
the child’s family and the valuable contributions of nurses such as those
who have authored this book and those who will read it.

Saturday, August 8, 2015

Advanced Clinical Skills for GU Nurses

Poor sexual health is now a major public health issue in the UK, with all four
countries having a sexual health strategy, strategic framework or action plan
in place. The Government in England wishes to improve sexual health services,
with a focus on improving access.
All over the country nurses are working in new and innovative ways in
sexual and reproductive health. Many are working in advanced and specialist
clinical roles as independent practitioners and more creative posts are being
developed in the National Health Service to maximise optimum use of nurses’
skills. Several Nurse Consultant posts have now been developed in the speciality
of Genito Urinary Medicine (GUM).
With this important public health agenda in mind, this book provides a valuable
resource for nurses working towards, and at, advanced level in GUM, but
the content is also transferable and relevant to nurses working in non-acute
This book also provides a skill base for more junior nurses in GUM to aspire
to. Using a competency-based approach, many GUM nurses could develop
their practice to an advanced level, using nurse prescribing and/or patient
group directions to complement the level of service they provide.
I welcome the publication of this book, as I firmly believe, that historically
there has never been a better time for nurses to develop their roles in GUM
and sexual health, to drive forward improvements and to lead service delivery
in this challenging, changing and dynamic area of health in the twenty-first

Friday, April 3, 2015

Nursing Diagnosis NANDA 2012 - 2014 free pdf

Nursing Diagnoses 2012 – 2014
Domain 1 – Health Promotion Domain 4 – Activity/ Rest Deficient diversional activity Insomnia Sedentary lifestyle Sleep deprivation Deficient community health Readiness for enhanced sleep Risk-prone health behavior Disturbed sleep pattern Ineffective health maintenance Risk for disuse syndrome Readiness for enhanced immunization status Impaired bed mobility Ineffective protection Impaired physical mobility Ineffective self-health management Impaired wheelchair mobility Readiness for enhanced self-health management Impaired transfer ability Ineffective family therapeutic regimen management Impaired walking Disturbed energy field
Domain 2 – Nutrition Fatigue Wandering Insufficient breast milk Activity intolerance Ineffective infant feeding pattern Risk for activity intolerance Imbalanced nutrition: less than body requirements Ineffective breathing pattern Imbalanced nutrition: more than body requirements Decreased cardiac output Risk for imbalanced nutrition: more than body requirements Risk for ineffective gastrointestinal perfusion Readiness for enhanced nutrition Risk for ineffective renal perfusion Impaired swallowing Impaired spontaneous ventilation Risk for unstable blood glucose level Ineffective peripheral tissue perfusion Neonatal jaundice Risk for decreased cardiac tissue perfusion Risk for neonatal jaundice Risk for ineffective cerebral tissue perfusion Risk for impaired liver function Risk for ineffective peripheral tissue perfusion Risk for electrolyte imbalance Dysfunctional ventilatory weaning response Readiness for enhanced fluid balance Impaired home maintenance Deficient fluid volume Readiness for enhanced self-care Excess fluid volume Bathing self-care deficit Risk for deficient fluid volume Dressing self-care deficit Risk for imbalanced fluid volume Feeding self-care deficit Toileting self-care deficit
Domain 3 – Elimination and Exchange Self-neglect Functional urinary incontinence
Domain 5 – Perception/ Cognition Overflow urinary incontinence Reflex urinary incontinence Unilateral neglect Stress urinary incontinence Impaired environmental interpretation syndrome Urge urinary incontinence Acute confusion Risk for urge urinary incontinence Chronic confusion Impaired urinary elimination Risk for acute confusion Readiness for enhanced urinary elimination Ineffective impulse control Urinary retention Deficient knowledge Constipation Readiness for enhanced knowledge Perceived constipation Impaired memory Risk for constipation Readiness for enhanced communication Diarrhea Impaired verbal communication Dysfunctional gastrointestinal motility Risk for dysfunctional gastrointestinal motility
Domain 6 – Self-Perception Bowel incontinence Impaired gas exchange Hopelessness Risk for compromised human dignity Domain 8 – Sexuality Risk for loneliness Disturbed personal identity Sexual dysfunction Risk for disturbed personal identity Ineffective sexuality pattern Readiness for enhanced self-control Ineffective childbearing process Chronic low self-esteem Readiness for enhanced childbearing process Risk for chronic low self-esteem Risk for ineffective childbearing process Risk for situational low self-esteem Risk for disturbed maternal-fetal dyad Situational low self-esteem Disturbed body image
 Domain 7 – Role Relationships
Domain 10 – Life Principles Ineffective breastfeeding Readiness for enhanced hope Interrupted breastfeeding Readiness for enhanced spiritual well-being Readiness for enhanced breastfeeding Readiness for enhanced decision-making Caregiver role strain Decisional conflict Risk for caregiver role strain Moral distress Impaired parenting Noncompliance Readiness for enhanced parenting Impaired religiosity Risk for impaired parenting Readiness for enhanced religiosity Risk for impaired attachment Risk for impaired religiosity Dysfunctional family processes Spiritual distress Interrupted family processes Risk for spiritual distress Readiness for enhanced family processes Ineffective relationship
Domain 11 – Safety/ Protection Readiness for enhanced relationship Risk for ineffective relationship Risk for infection Parental role conflict Ineffective airway clearance Ineffective role performance Risk for aspiration Impaired social interaction Risk for bleeding Impaired dentition
Domain 9 – Coping/ Stress Tolerance Risk for dry eye Risk for falls Post-trauma syndrome Risk for injury Risk for post-trauma syndrome Impaired oral mucous membrane Rape-trauma syndrome Risk for perioperative positioning injury Relocation stress syndrome Risk for peripheral neurovascular dysfunction Risk for relocation stress syndrome Risk for shock Ineffective activity planning Impaired skin integrity Risk for ineffective activity planning Risk for impaired skin integrity Anxiety Risk for sudden infant death syndrome Compromised family coping Risk for suffocation Defensive coping Delayed surgical recovery Disabled family coping Risk for thermal injury Ineffective coping Impaired tissue integrity Ineffective community coping Risk for trauma Readiness for enhanced coping Risk for vascular trauma Readiness for enhanced family coping Risk for other-directed violence Death anxiety Risk for self-directed violence Ineffective denial Self-mutilation Adult failure to thrive Risk for self-mutilation Fear Risk for suicide Grieving Contamination Complicated grieving Risk for contamination Risk for complicated grieving Risk for poisoning Readiness for enhanced power Risk for adverse reaction to iodinated contrast media Powerlessness Risk for allergy response Risk for powerlessness Latex allergy response Impaired individual resilience Risk for latex allergy response Readiness for enhanced resilience Risk for imbalanced body temperature Risk for compromised resilience Hyperthermia Chronic sorrow Hypothermia Stress overload Ineffective thermoregulation Risk for disorganized infant behavior Autonomic dysreflexia
Domain 12 – Comfort Risk for autonomic dysreflexia Disorganized infant behavior Impaired comfort Readiness for enhanced organized infant behavior Readiness for enhanced comfort Decreased intracranial adaptive capacity Nausea Acute pain
Domain 13 – Growth/ Development Chronic pain Impaired comfort Risk for disproportionate growth Readiness for enhanced comfort Delayed growth and development Social isolation Risk for delayed development