Tuesday, February 12, 2013

The Allergy and Asthma Cure PDF EBOOK

Asthma (from the Greek ἅσθμα, ásthma, "panting") is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm. Common symptoms include wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.Asthma is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Its diagnosis is usually based on the pattern of symptoms, response to therapy over time, and spirometry. It is clinically classified according to the frequency of symptoms, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow rate. Asthma may also be classified as atopic (extrinsic) or non-atopic (intrinsic) where atopy refers to a predisposition toward developing type 1 hypersensitivity reactions. Treatment of acute symptoms is usually with an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist (such as salbutamol) and oral corticosteroids. In very severe cases intravenous corticosteroids, magnesium sulfate and hospitalization maybe required. Symptoms can be prevented by avoiding triggers, such as allergens and irritants, and by the use of inhaled corticosteroids. Long-acting beta agonists (LABA) or leukotriene antagonists may be used in addition to inhaled corticosteroids if asthma symptoms remain uncontrolled. The prevalence of asthma has increased significantly since the 1970s. As of 2011, 235–300 million people were affected globally, including about 250,000 deaths. Asthma is characterized by recurrent episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. Sputum may be produced from the lung by coughing but is often hard to bring up. During recovery from an attack it may appear pus like due to high levels of white blood cells called eosinophils. Symptoms are usually worse at night and in the early morning or in response to exercise or cold air. Some people with asthma rarely experience symptoms, usually in response to triggers, whereas others may have marked and persistent symptoms. A number of other health conditions occur more frequently in those with asthma including: gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), rhinosinusitis, and obstructive sleep apnea. Psychological disorders are also more common with anxiety disorders occurring in between 16–52% and mood disorders in 14–41%. It however is not known if asthma causes psychological problems or if psychological problems lead to asthma. Asthma is caused by a combination of complex and incompletely understood environmental and genetic interactions. These factors influence both its severity and its responsiveness to treatment. It is believed that the recent increased rates of asthma are due to changing epigenetics (heritable factors other than those related to the DNA sequence) and a changing living environment. Many environmental factors have been associated with asthma's development and exacerbation including: allergens, air pollution, and other environmental chemicals. Smoking during pregnancy and after delivery is associated with a greater risk of asthma-like symptoms. Low air quality, from traffic pollution or high ozone levels, has been associated with both asthma development and increased asthma severity. Exposure to indoor volatile organic compounds may be a trigger for asthma; formaldehyde exposure, for example, has a positive association. Also, phthalates in PVC are associated with asthma in children and adults as are high levels of endotoxin exposure.Asthma is associated with exposure to indoor allergens.Common indoor allergens include: dust mites, cockroaches, animal dander, and mold. Efforts to decrease dust mites have been found to be ineffective. Certain viral respiratory infections may increase the risk of developing asthma when acquired as young children such as: respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus. Certain other infections however may decrease the risk. (wikipedia)

Monday, February 11, 2013

The Obesity Myth PDF EBOOK

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems.People are considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of the person's height in metres, exceeds 30 kg/m2.Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food energy intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility, although a few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications or psychiatric illness. Evidence to support the view that some obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is limited; on average obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.Dieting and physical exercise are the mainstays of treatment for obesity. Diet quality can be improved by reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods such as those high in fat and sugars, and by increasing the intake of dietary fiber. Anti-obesity drugs may be taken to reduce appetite or inhibit fat absorption together with a suitable diet. If diet, exercise and medication are not effective, a gastric balloon may assist with weight loss, or surgery may be performed to reduce stomach volume and/or bowel length, leading to earlier satiation and reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food.Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence in adults and children, and authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. Obesity is stigmatized in much of the modern world (particularly in the Western world), though it was widely perceived as a symbol of wealth and fertility at other times in history, and still is in some parts of the world.(wikipedia)

Monday, February 4, 2013

ABC of Breast Desease Third Edition Ebook Pdf

The aim of the third edition of the ABC of Breast Diseases is to provide an up to date, concise, well illustrated, and evidence based text that will meet the dual challenges of mana ging the increasing numbers of women who attend breast clinics and the increasing numbers of women who are diagnosed with breast cancer. This edition contains many new illustrations and diagrams. The chapters on screening, adjuvant therapy, clinical trials, and prognostic factors have been completely rewritten, and all other chapters have
been extensively revised. The topics of adjuvant therapy and metastatic breast cancer have been extended to cover the explosion of results gained from the many multinational breast cancer trials which have reported since the last edition of this ABC was published.

New authors have added their work to that of those who have already contributed to the success of the book. Thanks to Jan Mauritzen my PA who has coordinated the many revisions, to Eleanor Lines. Commissioning Editor, ABC series, to Sally Carter, Development Editor, BMJ editorial and Nick Morgan, Senior Development Editor at Blackwell Publishing who converted the authors’ words and pictures into the book that is before you. Such a comprehensive review has been time consuming. I continue to be grateful for the support of my colleagues in the Edinburgh Breast Unit, and to my family Pam, Oliver, and Jonathan. I also thank the many patients who agreed to be photographed for this book, but more importantly, for the inspiration they provide in how they cope, not only with their disease but with all that we do to them.

The care provided for patients with breast cancer is better coordinated and more truly multidisciplinary than that for any other cancer. This is a testimony to those multidisciplinary teams that treat breast cancer, and to the many groups and individual women who have demanded access to good quality care for all. As a clinician I hope that the knowledge and understanding gained through research will continue to result in improved treatments. Many challenges remain in the field of breast diseases, and there is much we do not know. This book is our effort to inform you of everything that we think we know and understand about breast diseases and its management.