Saturday, September 13, 2014

DISEASES AND DISORDERS A Nursing Therapeutics Manual THIRD EDITION pdf ebook


As in the first edition, we have included relevant information about Gender and Life Span Considerations, and have enhanced this section with information about racial and ethnic differences in health and disease. As our society has an ever-increasing diversity, we have developed this section so that practitioners have a basis from which to develop culturally competent care. Each entry begins with the Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) category. DRGs were initiated by the Health Care Financing Administration to serve as an organizing framework to grouprelated conditions and to stabilize reimbursements. Because they provide a convenient standard to evaluate hospital care, DRGs are used by institutions and disciplines to measure utilization and to allocate resources. We have included DRGs to indicate the expected norms in average length of stay for each entry. Each entry follows the nursing process, with assessment information incorporated in the History and Physical Assessment sections, the Psychosocial Assessment, and Diagnostic Highlights. Based on requests from our readers and reviewers, we have supplemented information on diagnostic testing from earlier editions to provide normal and abnormal values for the most important diagnostic tests. We have also added a section to explain the rationale for the test. These detailed, specific sections provide the foundation needed to perform a comprehensive assessment of the patient’s condition so that a Primary Nursing Diagnosis can be formulated appropriate to the patient’s specific needs. The Planning and Implementation section is divided into Collaborative and Independent interventions. The intent of the Collaborative section is to detail the goals of a multidisciplinary plan of care to manage the condition or disease. As in the second edition, there is an expanded section on Pharmacologic Highlights that explores commonly used drugs, their doses, mechanisms of action, and rationales for use. The Independent section focuses on independent nursing interventions that demonstrate the core of the art and science of nursing. Each entry then finishes with Documentation Guidelines and Discharge and Home Healthcare Guidelines to help nurses evaluate the outcomes of care and to prepare hospitalized patients for discharge. As with the first and second editions, the idea for the book originated with Joanne Patzek DaCunha, Publisher at F.A. Davis. The authors salute her creativity, perseverance, enthusiasm revision with a minimum of difficulty. We also owe a debt of gratitude to Jeff Sommers for his assistance with manuscript development, editing, proofreading, and supportive cheerleading. Finally we acknowledge with gratitude the hard work that a host of contributors made to the first edition. The entire reason to revise this book is to provide practicing nurses a concise and yet scientifically sound text to guide the professional practice of nursing. The provision of nursing care in the 21st century presents us with overwhelming challenges, and yet nursing is the discipline of choice for millions of practitioners.


Thursday, September 11, 2014

FUNDAMENTALS OF NURSING STANDARDS & PRACTICE SECOND EDITION EBOOK PDF


Unit I, Nursing’s Perspective: Past, Present and Future, explores many aspects that are essential to nursing. A historical overview of early leaders and social forces that have influenced the development of nursing practice is provided. The theoretical frameworks for guiding professional practice and the significance of incorporating research into nursing practice are emphasized. The evolution of our current health care delivery system is discussed with attention given to proposals for change. Unit II, Nursing Process, The Standard of Care, explains each component of the nursing process. The nursing process is the framework for delivering holistic care in an organized scientific manner. A chapter on critical thinking leads the unit discussion of the five phases of the nursing process. Unit III, The Therapeutic Nature of Nursing, discusses the caring nature of nursing as demonstrated through therapeutic communication and actions. Nursing, by definition and purpose, is a therapeutic process. Improving interpersonal and therapeutic effectiveness through knowledge and skills are key to this unit presentation. Nurses’ roles in client education are addressed. Complementary and alternative treatment modalities are presented here. Unit IV, The Individual and Health, focuses on the holistic nature of individuals and nursing as a holistic discipline. The impact on an individual's health related behaviors are discussed in relation to the life cycle, aging, stress, culture, self-concept and reaction to loss. Unit V, Professional Accountability, addresses accountability from the professional, legal and ethical perspectives. Documentation and quality management are discussed in detail in this unit. Unit VI, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Interventions, present many of the fundamental skills and tools for providing nursing care. Step-by-step instruction and rationale are provided for each of the skills presented. Unit VII, Nursing Management of Basic Needs, discusses areas of nursing care that are common to every area of practice. Concepts such as safety and infection control, mobility, fluid and electrolyte balance, skin integrity, and nutrition are described. Step-by-step skill presentation with rationale is also presented for each chapter.

Monday, September 8, 2014

Vascular Disease A Handbook for Nurses ebook pdf

Vascular disease is a pathological state of large and medium sized muscular arteries and is triggered by endothelial cell dysfunction. Because of factors like pathogens, oxidized LDL particles and other inflammatory stimuli endothelial cells become activated. This leads to change in their characteristics: endothelial cells start to excrete cytokines and chemokinesand express adhesion molecules on their surface. This in turn results in recruitment of white blood cells (monocytes and lymphocytes), which can infiltrate the blood vessel wall. Stimulation of smooth muscle cell layer with cytokines produced by endothelial cells and recruited white blood cells causes smooth muscle cells to proliferate and migrate towards the blood vessel lumen. The process causes thickening of the vessel wall, forming a plaque consisting of proliferating smooth muscle cells, macrophages and various types oflymphocytes. This plaque result in obstructed blood flow leading to diminished amounts of oxygen and nutrients, that reach the target organ. In the final stages, the plaque may also rupture causing the formation of clots, and as a result strokes. In order to confirm a cerebrovascular disease, few additional tests may be required whenever there are doubts in what the diagnosis concerns. These may include tests such as thecerebral angiography (carotid angiogram). This test is made by inserting a catheter into the patient's artery in the leg with the help of a needle through the vessels in the abdomen and chest, until it reaches the arteries of the neck. The coronary angiogram is basically the same procedure which is however utilized for detecting cardiovascular conditions. The carotid duplex (carotid ultrasound) is another type of noninvasive test which uses ultrasound waves in order to detect plaque, blood clots or any other type of blood flow abnormalities in the carotid arteries. The specialists may detect hemorrhagic strokes with the help of a X-ray computed tomography. They are easily visualized due to the differences in density between the blood, bone and brain tissue. The CT scans are also useful in finding out abnormalities in the heart and in diagnosing cardiovascular conditions.[4] The Doppler ultrasound is a test used to diagnose both cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease. It utilizes high frequency sound waves that are being directed to thevein or artery which presents abnormalities and are then detected on the Doppler. Electroencephalography may be required in order to detect electrical impulses in the brain by placing small metal discs called electrodes on the scalp of the patient. The magnetic resonance imaging technique is able to obtain 3D images of the body structure. The images are very clear and they are produced by using magnetic fields and recent computer technology. Due to the clarity of the pictures, the MRI can detect any signs of prior strokes. The MRI may also be performed on the heart if a cardiovascular disease is suspected. A lumbar puncture may also be performed but this is an invasive test which consists in taking a sample of cerebrospinal fluid from the space surrounding the spinal cord. The purpose of this test is finding traces of blood which may be due to cerebral hemorrhage.[5] Upon suspicion of peripheral vascular disease, the first-line study is the ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI/ABI) which is a measure of the fall in blood pressure in the arteries supplying the legs. An ABPI value that exceeds 0.9 is the confirmation that a peripheral vascular disease is not present. If the value of the ABPI is lower than 0.8, the peripheral vascular disease exists but it is normally a mild case. On the other hand, a value below 0.5 is the proof of a serious vascular condition. (wikipedia)


Friday, September 5, 2014

Caring for Children and Families ebook pdf

This text has been written as a resource for those who provide health care for
children and their families. Contributors to the book are experts from a range
of backgrounds – both in practice and academia. The contributors firmly
believe, that the child comes first and foremost; they believe that each child is
a unique person with individual needs and aspirations – this stance is clearly
reflected in each chapter of the book.
Children deserve the best possible care, and this cannot be provided unless
there is an understanding of the context of children’s lives, both in the community
at large and within healthcare settings. The concept of partnership
focuses upon the need to deliver paediatric care in collaboration with the child
and the family.This text encourages the reader to apply this approach to care
delivery in any situation in which they may be working. Chapter 2 emphasises
the importance of this, looking beyond a disease-orientated approach to one
where the child and her or his family are a clear and central unit.
The principal audience of this text are nursing students, and especially those
who are undertaking NVQ/SNVQ, Access to Nursing and Cadet nursing programmes
of study. It is not, however, a comprehensive book about children’s
nursing, and, as a result, the reader is encouraged to identify further topics of
importance that have not been considered here. Within the text the terms
‘nurse’, ‘student’ and ‘nursing’ have been adopted.The terms and the philosophies
applied to this book can be adapted to suit a number of healthcare
workers at various levels and in a range of settings in order to develop caring
skills.
The book presents up-to-date information that the aspiring nurse or child
healthcare provider requires in order to begin to understand how to help children
and families, in both the institutional setting (for example the hospital)
and the community (for example the child’s own home).The material is organised
in such a way that it reflects contemporary practice in a user-friendly
manner; in addition, information is related to clinical practice issues that may
be experienced when working with children and their families. It is not envisaged
that the text be read from cover to cover in one sitting; it has been
designed to be used as a reference book (a resource, a reader) either in the
clinical setting, classroom or in your own home.