Friday, April 26, 2013

Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease Ebook PDF

The term “metabolic syndrome” denotes a clustering of traditional and emerging risk factors for atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. Moreover, individuals who satisfy the current diagnostic criteria that define the syndrome are also at substantially increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes—itself a coronary heart disease risk equivalent. Central obesity and insulin resistance are core features
of the syndrome, which has come to be recognized as a major global threat to vascular health in the 21st century. The time is optimal for a textbook dedicated to this important issue.
The metabolic syndrome has adverse implications for many aspects of vascular function ranging from endothelial function, the microvascular tree, medium-sized arteries, and large conduit vessels. Furthermore, gathering evidence suggests that interactions between small and large vessel disease may be
more important than perhaps has previously been appreciated.
There are fears that the successes in reducing cardiovascular mortality in recent decades may soon be reversed. Fueled by the explosion of obesity, the syndrome is characterized by the clustering of classic and emerging risk factors for cardiovascular disease. No longer is it appropriate to regard obesity, glucose
intolerance and diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia as separate entities to be treated in individual clinical settings (e.g. the diabetes clinic, hypertension clinic, etc.). If one of the components of the metabolic syndrome is discovered, then steps should be taken to determine whether others are also present, and for
implementing comprehensive approaches aimed toward treating the constellation of metabolic risk factors. This can be accomplished by simple clinical and biochemical tests and a multidisciplinary team approach implementing lifestyle and pharmacologic treatment.
This new paradigm presents challenges for clinicians involved in the assessment and management of individuals with metabolic syndrome. This rapidly moving area is being driven by advances in clinical and basic science. The latter are informing strategies for risk stratification and optimization of
nonpharmacologic and drug-based treatment.

Our objective in bringing this book into print has been to present a stateof-the-art account of the salient issues for a clinically-oriented readership. In this endeavor, we are pleased to have been joined by an international team of experts, each recognized in his or her field. Various chapters cover epidemiology, diagnosis, risk assessment, vascular biology, lifestyle measure, management of hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, and strategies for maximizing compliance to treatment recommendations. We hope that the book will not only be of academic interest but will provide helpful practical guidance to primary care physicians, diabetologists, cardiologists, dietitians, and other healthcare professionals involved in the prevention and treatment of vascular disease.
A better understanding of the mechanisms that cause cardiovascular risk factors to cluster together to the long-term detriment of so many individuals should facilitate more effective measures for prevention and treatment. Scientists working in epidemiology, basic science, drug discovery, and clinical trials each have roles to play in unraveling what is proving to be a major public health crisis.
It has been a pleasure working with colleagues from around the world and with the staff of Informa Healthcare. We welcome feedback from readers in the expectation that the text will require updating in the future, given the rapidly increasing scientific knowledge and developments in the field.
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Thursday, April 25, 2013

Brunner and Suddarth's Textbook of Medical Surgical Nursing Ebook PDF

The first edition of Brunner & Suddarth’s Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing was published in 1964 under the leadership of Lillian Sholtis Brunner and Doris Smith Suddarth. Lillian and Doris pioneered a medical-surgical nursing textbook that has become a classic. Medical-surgical nursing has come a long way since 1964 but continues to be strongly influenced by the expansion of science, medicine, surgery, and technology, as well as a myriad of social, cultural, economic, and environmental changes throughout
the world. Nurses must be particularly skilled in critical thinking and clinical decision-making as well as in consulting and collaborating with other members of the multidisciplinary health care team.
Along with the challenges that today’s nurses confront, there are many opportunities to provide skilled, compassionate nursing care in a variety of health care settings, for patients in the various stages of illness, and for patients across the age continuum. At the same time, there are significant opportunities for fostering health promotion activities for individuals and groups; this is an integral part of providing nursing care.
Continuing the tradition of Lillian’s and Doris’s first edition, this 12th edition of Brunner & Suddarth’s Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing is designed to assist nurses in preparing for their roles and responsibilities within the complex health care delivery system. A goal of the textbook is to provide balanced attention to the art and science of adult medical-surgical nursing. The textbook focuses on physiologic, pathophysiologic, and psychosocial concepts as they relate to nursing care, and emphasis is placed on integrating a variety of concepts from other disciplines such as nutrition, pharmacology, and gerontology. Content relative to health care needs of people with disabilities, nursing research findings, ethical considerations, and evidence-based practice has been expanded to provide opportunities for the
nurse to refine clinical decision-making skills.

Brunner & Suddarth’s Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing, 12th edition, is organized into 16 units. Units 1 through 4 cover core concepts related to medical-surgical nursing practice. Units 5 through 16 discuss adult health conditions that are treated medically or surgically. Each unit covering adult health conditions is structured in the following way, to facilitate understanding:
• The first chapter in the unit covers assessment and includes a review of normal anatomy and physiology of
the body system being discussed.
• The subsequent chapters in the unit cover management of specific disorders. Pathophysiology, clinical
manifestations, assessment and diagnostic findings, medical management, and nursing management are
presented. Special “Nursing Process” sections, provided for selected conditions, clarify and expand on
the nurse’s role in caring for patients with these conditions
Applying Concepts from NANDA, NIC, and NOC. Each unit begins with a case study and a chart presenting examples of NANDA, NIC, and NOC terminologies related to the case study. Concept maps, which provide a visual representation of the NANDA, NIC, and NOC chart for each case study, are found on the accompanying Web site to this book at thepoint.lww.com/Smeltzer12e. This feature introduces
the student to the NIC and NOC language and classifications and brings them to life in graphic form.
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Sunday, April 14, 2013

Problem based behavioral science psychiatry ebook pdf

The term behavioural sciences encompasses all the disciplines that explore the activities of and interactions among organisms in the natural world. It involves the systematic analysis and investigation of human and animal behaviour through controlled and naturalistic observation, and disciplined scientific experimentation. It attempts to accomplish legitimate, objective conclusions through rigorous formulations and observation.[1] Examples of behavioural sciences include psychology, psychobiology, and cognitive science. The term behavioural sciences is often confused with the term social sciences. Though these two broad areas are interrelated and study systematic processes of behaviour, they differ on their level of scientific analysis of various dimensions of behaviour. Behavioural sciences abstract empirical data to investigate the decision processes and communication strategies within and between organisms in a social system. This involves fields like psychology, social neuroscience and cognitive science. In contrast, social sciences provide a perceptive framework to study the processes of a social system through impacts of social organisation on structural adjustment of the individual and of groups. They typically include fields like sociology, economics, public health, anthropology, demography and political science.[1] Obviously, however, many subfields of these disciplines cross the boundaries of behavioral and social. For example, political psychology and behavioral economics use behavioral approaches, despite the predominant focus on systemic and institutional factors in the broader fields of political science and economics. Behavioural sciences includes two broad categories: neural — Information sciences and social — Relational sciences. Information processing sciences deals with information processing of stimuli from the social environment by cognitive entities in order to engage in decision making, social judgment and social perception for individual functioning and survival of organism in a social environment. These include psychology, cognitive science, psychobiology, neural networks, social cognition, social psychology, semantic networks, ethology and social neuroscience. On the other hand, Relational sciences deals with relationships, interaction, communication networks, associations and relational strategies or dynamics between organisms or cognitive entities in a social system. These include fields like sociological social psychology, social networks, dynamic network analysis, agent-based model and microsimulation. Insights from several pure disciplines across behavioural sciences are explored by various applied disciplines and practiced in the context of everyday life and business. These applied disciplines of behavioural science include: organizational behavior, operations research, consumer behaviour and media psychology. (wikipedia)
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