Friday, September 30, 2011

Nursing Dictionary PDF

This fully updated edition offers over 11,000 entries, each providing clear, up-to-date coverage of specialist nursing terms, including diseases, symptoms, anatomy, instruments, common drugs, and biological terms. It covers both everyday vocabulary relating to patient care, and terms from medical specializations such as psychiatry.



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Nursing management Book PDF

Nursing management is performing leadership functions of governance and decision-making within organizations employing nurses. It includes processes common to all management like planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. It is common for RNs to seek additional education to earn a Master of Science in Nursing or Doctor of Nursing Practice to prepare for leadership roles within nursing. Management positions increasingly require candidates to hold an advanced degree in nursing.

Director of Nursing

For information about the DON position at a long term care facility, see Director of nursing (long term care facility).

A director of nursing (DON) is a registered nurse who supervises the care of all the patients at a health care facility. The director of nursing is the senior nursing management position in an organization and often holds executive titles like Chief Nursing Officer (CNO), Chief Nurse Executive, or Vice-President of Nursing. They typically report to the CEO or COO.


The American Organization of Nurse Executives is a professional association for directors of nursing.

Service directors

Many large healthcare organizations also have service directors. These directors have oversight of a particular service within the facility or system (surgical services, women's services, emergency services, critical care services, etc.).

Nurse manager

The nurse manager is the nurse with management responsibilities of a nursing unit. They typically report to a service director. They have primary responsibilities for staffing, budgeting, and day-to-day operations of the unit.

Charge nurse

The charge nurse is the nurse, usually assigned for a shift, who is responsible for the immediate functioning of the unit. The charge nurse is responsible for making sure nursing care is delivered safely and that all the patients on the unit are receiving adequate care. They are typically the frontline management in most nursing units. Some charge nurses are permanent members of the nursing management team and are called shift supervisors. The traditional term for a female charge nurse is a nursing sister (or just sister), and this term is still commonly used in some countries (such as the United Kingdom).
source : wikipedia






Disclaimer
This site contains links to other websites. All Ebooks and Softwares are Copyright of their respective owners. Links are from different authors all over the world. This site simply provides links to offshore content (not in US or Canada) to material featured in this site.

Wednesday, September 28, 2011

Nurse uniform

A nurse uniform is attire worn by nurses for hygiene and identification. The traditional nurse uniform consists of a dress, apron and cap. It has existed in many variants, but the basic style has remained recognizable.

History
The first nurse uniforms were derived from the nun's habit. Before the 19th century, nuns took care of sick and injured people so it was obvious that trained lay nurses might copy the nun's habit as they have adopted ranks like "Sister". One of Florence Nightingale's first students (Miss VanRensselaer) designed the original uniform for the students at Miss Nightingale's school of nursing. Before the 1940s minor changes occurred in the uniform. The clothing consisted of a mainly blue outfit. Hospitals were free to determine the style of the nurse uniform, including the nurse's cap which exists in many variants.

In Britain, the national uniform (or simply "national") was designed with the advent of the National Health Service (NHS) in 1948, and the Newcastle dress.From the 1960s open necks began to appear. In the 1970s, white disposable paper caps replaced cotton ones; in the 1980s, plastic aprons displaced the traditional ones and outerwear began to disappear. From the 1990s, scrubs became popular in Britain, having first appeared in the USA; however, a majority of nurses in Britain continue to wear dresses, as in many other countries.




Standard nurse's uniform
Historically, a typical nurse uniform consisted of a dress, pinafore apron and nurse's cap. In some hospitals, however, student nurses also wore a nursing pin, or the pinafore apron may have been replaced by a cobbler style apron. This type of nurse's dress continues to be worn in many countries.
Nurses wearing a standard uniform consisting of a dressapron and cap.

Alternative nurses uniforms
Since the late 1980s, there has been a move towards alternative designs of nursing uniforms in some countries. Newer style nurse's uniform in the United Kingdom consists of either:
1. A tunic-style top and dark blue trousers that are optimally designed to prevent cross-infection, the colour of which depends upon the grade (or, more recently, band) of the nurse—the colour varies between NHS Trusts. The tunics often feature piping around the edges of the uniform.
2. A dress in the same colour as the tunic-style top.
Male nurses wear a white tunic with epaulettes in the colour of their grade.
A "scrub dress" is a simpler type of uniform, and is sometimes worn in operating rooms. For outdoor clothing the nurse has a red jacket over the indoor Nurse uniform. If a nurse is seen outside in his or her uniform, this is a reprimandable offence and the nurse may be subjected to a review.

A British staff nurse in a 1980's style dress.

Traditional uniforms remain common in the Third World, but in Western Europe and North America, so-called "scrubs" or tunics have become more popular.

German nurse in scrubs.

Nurse uniforms vs scrubs
Beginning in the 1990s, and until the present time, the traditional nurse uniforms have been replaced with the "new" scrub dress in some countries. Most hospitals in the USA and Europe argue that the scrub uniform is easier to clean than the old nurse uniforms. The nurses who wear the uniforms are divided into two camps:
• Those who prefer the new scrubs; disliked the old white nurse dress uniforms.
• The nurses who liked the old white nurse dress uniforms; they argue that nurses who wear scrubs are seen by the patients as cleaners or surgeons[citation needed] and cannot be identified as nurses.
In many parts of the world, nurses continue to wear a white uniform consisting of a dress and cap. The traditional white uniform for male nursing staff is now going out of fashion, excepting for student nurses. A tunic of either the dental surgeon style or a v neck with a collar is very often used. The colours vary with grade, area of work, and hospital; however, the male equivalent of sister (that is, charge nurse) tend to be shades of blue or dark green: often, this is the only colour to be recognised by the public as signifying a person in authority.

source : wikipedia 

Monday, September 19, 2011

Mental Health Nursing Ebook


click image to download for free ... enjoy..

Tuesday, September 6, 2011

Common Laboratory Values

Hematology Values

HEMATOCRIT (HCT)

Normal Adult Female Range: 37 - 47%
Optimal Adult Female Reading: 42%
Normal Adult Male Range 40 - 54%
Optimal Adult Male Reading: 47
Normal Newborn Range: 50 - 62%
Optimal Newborn Reading: 56

HEMOGLOBIN (HGB)

Normal Adult Female Range: 12 - 16 g/dl
Optimal Adult Female Reading: 14 g/dl
Normal Adult Male Range: 14 - 18 g/dl
Optimal Adult Male Reading: 16 g/dl
Normal Newborn Range: 14 - 20 g/dl
Optimal Newborn Reading: 17 g/dl

MCH (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin)

Normal Adult Range: 27 - 33 pg
Optimal Adult Reading: 30

MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume)

Normal Adult Range: 80 - 100 fl
Optimal Adult Reading: 90
Higher ranges are found in newborns and infants

MCHC (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration)

Normal Adult Range: 32 - 36 %
Optimal Adult Reading: 34
Higher ranges are found in newborns and infants





R.B.C. (Red Blood Cell Count)

Normal Adult Female Range: 3.9 - 5.2 mill/mcl
Optimal Adult Female Reading: 4.55
Normal Adult Male Range: 4.2 - 5.6 mill/mcl
Optimal Adult Male Reading: 4.9
Lower ranges are found in Children, newborns and infants

W.B.C. (White Blood Cell Count)

Normal Adult Range: 3.8 - 10.8 thous/mcl
Optimal Adult Reading: 7.3
Higher ranges are found in children, newborns and infants.

PLATELET COUNT

Normal Adult Range: 130 - 400 thous/mcl
Optimal Adult Reading: 265
Higher ranges are found in children, newborns and infants

NEUTROPHILS and NEUTROPHIL COUNT - this is the main defender of the body against infection and antigens. High levels may indicate an active infection.

Normal Adult Range: 48 - 73 %
Optimal Adult Reading: 60.5
Normal Children’s Range: 30 - 60 %
Optimal Children’s Reading: 45

LYMPHOCYTES and LYMPHOCYTE COUNT - Elevated levels may indicate an active viral infections such as measles, rubella, chickenpox, or infectious mononucleosis.

Normal Adult Range: 18 - 48 %
Optimal Adult Reading: 33
Normal Children’s Range: 25 - 50 %
Optimal Children’s Reading: 37.5

MONOCYTES and MONOCYTE COUNT - Elevated levels are seen in tissue breakdown or chronic infections, carcinomas, leukemia (monocytic) or lymphomas.

Normal Adult Range: 0 - 9 %
Optimal Adult Reading: 4.5

EOSINOPHILS and EOSINOPHIL COUNT - Elevated levels may indicate an allergic reactions or parasites.

Normal Adult Range: 0 - 5 %
Optimal Adult Reading: 2.5

BASOPHILS and BASOPHIL COUNT - Basophilic activity is not fully understood but it is known to carry histamine, heparin and serotonin. High levels are found in allergic reactions.

Normal Adult Range: 0 - 2 %
Optimal Adult Reading: 1


Monday, September 5, 2011

The Top 10 Categories of Cardiac Drugs

Abstract: New cardiac drugs appear on the market on a regular basis, however, there are some that remain constant. In this course, the most popular cardiac drug groups will be highlighted to help the healthcare worker determine the best treatment for their patients, and to provide the healthcare worker with the most up-to-date information regarding these drugs. There are ten categories of drugs highlighted with indications and adverse effects noted for each. The learner will be able to differentiate between the categories and determine the best drugs to achieve the desired outcomes.Author: Lynn Randall, R.N., B.S.N. ~~ Peer Review by Steven R. Hill, R.N., B.S.
Introduction
      This course is designed to introduce the top ten cardiac drugs presently used in the treatment of cardiac failure and myocardial infarction. Drugs are constantly being introduced to the marketplace, with cardiac drugs being the most popular. Each drug category addresses different issues related to cardiac function. Most of the drugs are used together to achieve the best outcome for the patient. Finding the right combination enables the medical community to provide the patient the maximum benefit with the minimum amount of side effects.       We begin this study with an overview of the heart and its function. It is essential to understand how the heart works so that one may better understand the functionality of the drugs. Without a basic knowledge of the heart as a pump, the actions of the drugs would not be useful.
Overview of the Heart
      The heart is made up of four chambers. They are the right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium and left ventricle. Blood is pumped through each chamber to supply oxygen to the organs of the body. The heart acts as a pump, pushing the blood throughout the vasculature supplying blood flow to the entire body.       The blood is pumped from the body through the inferior and superior vena cava. From there it goes into the right atrium, through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. From there the right ventricle pumps the blood through the pulmonic valve to the pulmonary artery to the lungs. The blood then takes on the oxygen from the lungs and goes to the pulmonary vein. It is pumped into the left atrium, through the mitral valve to the left ventricle. The left ventricle is the largest muscle in the heart and is responsible for pumping the blood through the aortic valve into the aorta and throughout the rest of the body.       The amount of blood pumped out of the ventricles with each beat is called the cardiac output. The normal cardiac output is between 4-6 liters per minute. Cardiac output is one way to judge if the heart is functioning efficiently, and is determined by the heart rate and the stroke volume. Stroke volume is the amount of blood ejected by the ventricle with each beat.
Cardiac Output = Heart Rate x Stroke Volume
      Another function of the heart that is necessary to understand is that of preload. Preload is "a function of the volume of blood presented to the left ventricle and also the compliance (the ability of the ventricle to stretch) of the ventricles at the end of diastole." Preload involves the ability of the heart muscle to stretch to accommodate the blood returned by the body. The heart is made up of muscle that is elastic, and over time the elasticity of the heart muscle decreases and the ventricles are not as pliable as they used to be. Preload increases in patients with hypertrophy of the heart. Preload also includes the amount of blood returned to the heart with each beat. If the heart muscle is able to accommodate the amount of returned blood, then the cardiac output is not affected. If, however, the heart has become less pliable and is unable to eject the increased amount of blood, then the cardiac output will decrease as well.       Afterload is the stress the heart must overcome to eject the blood from the ventricles. It is the amount of resistance the ventricles must push against to eject the blood. This is especially important in the left ventricle. If the arteries in the body are constricted or obstructed (such as in the case of arteriosclerosis), the heart will have a greater resistance to overcome to get the blood throughout the body. This resistance is often referred to as "systemic vascular resistance" (SVR). This can have a direct effect on the cardiac output. If the SVR is increased, the cardiac output will decrease, since the heart must work harder to eject the blood.       Understanding these concepts will enable the reader to better understand the drugs and their effects. Each drug affects the heart in different ways, and some do not affect the heart at all, but instead affect the vasculature it must pump against.