Tuesday, October 21, 2014

The GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA of Nursing & Allied Health

The Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health
is a medical reference product designed to inform and
educate readers about a wide variety of diseases, treatments,
tests and procedures, health issues, human biology,
and nursing and allied health professions. The Gale
Group believes the product to be comprehensive, but not
necessarily definitive. While the Gale Group has made
substantial efforts to provide information that is accurate,
comprehensive, and up-to-date, the Gale Group makes no
representations or warranties of any kind, including without
limitation, warranties of merchantability or fitness for
a particular purpose, nor does it guarantee the accuracy,
comprehensiveness, or timeliness of the information contained
in this product. Readers should be aware that the
universe of medical knowledge is constantly growing
and changing, and that differences of medical opinion
exist among authorities.

Wednesday, October 15, 2014

Nutrition A Handbook for Community Nurses pdf ebook

Nutritional Issues Highlighted in Saving Lives:
Our Healthier Nation The following are all areas highlighted by the Government in their
recent strategy document.

The Government has begun a series of meetings with the food
industry to explore ways of reducing the salt content of processed
foods. A number of major retailers have already taken action to
reduce the salt content of their own-brand products. Around 90%
of the salt we eat is derived from processed foods. Looking for lower
salt options in the supermarket, avoidance of adding salt during
cooking and use of alternative seasonings at the table can help to
reduce salt intake. It is important, however, to ensure that nutritional
messages are placed in context. It is recognised in the report
that salt is not the only factor that affects blood pressure. Reducing
excess alcohol intake and increasing physical activity are also highlighted
as being important.
Practical advice for those with high blood pressure should focus
on diet and lifestyle. Maintenance of a body weight within the desirable
range should be promoted, along with regular physical activity
and adherence to sensible drinking guidelines (no more than two to
three drinks a day for women and no more than three or four drinks
a day for men). In dietary terms, excess salt intake should be avoided
and consumption of fruit and vegetables encouraged to provide
potassium. Low-fat dairy products should also be promoted as a
useful source of calcium, which may also beneficially affect blood
pressure. For further information, see Q4.2.

There is no specific target given for tackling obesity in Saving Lives:
Our Healthier Nation. The targets set in the previous health strategy,
The Health of the Nation, to reduce obesity incidence to 6% of men and
8% of women, were very ambitious. The latest figures on obesity
(BMI > 30) show that it has now risen to 17% in men and 20% in
women in England (Department of Health, 1999). Altogether, 62%
of men and 53% of women can now be classed as overweight (BMI
> 25). The Government states in Saving Lives: Our Healthier Nation that
the provision of information on healthy eating and the importance of
physical activity will help prevent obesity. It may be, however, that a
more clearly defined strategy is needed to begin to tackle this problem.
A major review of obesity, published by the British Nutrition
Foundation (1999a), suggested key action for policy-makers. This
might include fundamental changes in legislation, e.g. new legislation
to clamp down on miracle weight-loss cures that undermine the
efforts of reputable healthcare professionals and new transport policies
that promote increased levels of physical activity.
The relationship between obesity and health is discussed more
fully in Q4.4–4.12. Specific issues relating to obesity are discussed
throughout the book and a Government framework for tackling
obesity at local level can be found in the National Service Framework
for CHD (Department of Health 2000c).

The benefits of breast-feeding are recognised by the Government,
which is aiming to increase the prevalence of breast-feeding, especially
in areas of the country where breast-feeding rates are lowest. For more
information see Q3.21–3.34. There are numerous benefits associated
with breast-feeding (see Q3.24). As well as being a complete nutrient
source, breast milk has anti-infective properties and contains a variety
of enzymes, growth factors, hormones, nutrient-binding proteins and
non-absorbable carbohydrates. Breast-feeding may also help in the
development of a warm mother/child relationship.

Importance of good nutrition for schoolchildren
High on the Government’s agenda is the need to focus on the health
of Britain’s schoolchildren. The implementation of good habits in
childhood is important for the future health of the population. Over
the last 50 years, there has been a change in emphasis in relation to
concerns about schoolchildren’s diets. Historically, the focus was on
the adequate provision of nutrients, but providing adequate dietary
balance is now viewed as the main priority. The National Diet and
Nutrition Survey of young people (aged 4–18 years) is the most
detailed survey yet to be undertaken in this age group in Britain
(Gregory et al., 2000). This survey demonstrates that, although vitamin
intakes are generally adequate, a sizeable proportion of
children, particularly older girls, may have inadequate intakes of
some minerals. Also, there is a high intake of saturated fatty acids,
non-milk extrinsic sugars and salt among many children. Moreover,
with the exception of the youngest children (4–6 years), young people
in Britain are largely inactive. Clearly, these findings are worthy of our
attention because poor eating and physical activity habits in childhood
can store up problems for later life, particularly in relation to
obesity, heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis and cancer.
There is clear evidence from the survey to justify the Government’s
concern about the diets of children living in households
where there is relative poverty. In particular, boys in households in
receipt of benefits seem to have lower energy intakes and poorer-
quality diets (Gregory et al., 2000). The independent report to the
Government on health inequalities from Professor Acheson indicated
that one in three of Britain’s children lives in poverty and, in
1996, 2.2 million children in Britain were in families receiving
income support (Acheson, 1998). This report highlighted the important
role of education in influencing health inequalities and providing
children with practical and social skills, including budgeting and
cooking. The Government’s Healthy Schools programme is aimed at
creating a healthy ethos in schools. This remit includes promoting
good nutrition and the acquisition of cooking skills, as well as increased
levels of physical activity. There are also plans to re-establish national
nutritional standards for school meals, which came into force in
April 2001.
A number of initiatives are under way to improve the nutrition of
schoolchildren and their awareness of healthy eating, including
school breakfast schemes, ‘healthy’ tuck shops and the development
of ‘Wired for Health’ – a website for teachers providing health information
to support the National Curriculum. Pilots for a scheme to
provide 4–6 year olds with free fruit at school, are underway with a
view to implementation by 2004 (Department of Health 2000b). For
further information, see Q3.59–3.76. The government has also
published a sports strategy which aims to encourage physical activity
among children by providing after school activities for all pupils and
establishing school sport co-ordinators in communities of greatest
need (for further details see Sports England website

Friday, October 10, 2014

Anxiety Management in Adult Day Surgery A Nursing Perspective PDF EBOOK

This book is centrally concerned with the formal management of preoperative
anxiety. The vast majority of patients experience varying degrees
of anxiety when entering hospital for surgery and yet little formal intervention
is commonly provided. This is the first book of its kind to be
written for nurses exclusively concerning the complete formal pre- and
postoperative management of anxiety in relation to modern, elective,
adult day surgery. During the early 1970s classic nursing studies suggested
information provision to be crucial for effective inpatient preoperative
anxiety management. However, following such early recommendations
no other formal aspects of psychoeducational care have impacted on
mainstream surgical nursing intervention. Physical aspects of care have
dominated proceedings for the last three decades or more, whereas psychoeducational
aspects have largely remained informal, marginal issues.
Both surgery and anaesthesia have changed dramatically during this period
and nursing intervention must now do likewise.
The domination of physical nursing intervention is, however, slowly
changing as the continuous global rise in elective ambulatory surgery has
highlighted the need for more structured psychoeducational approaches
to patient care. The psychological theories to aid preoperative anxiety
management have been available for many years. However, they have not
succeeded in making an impact within the clinical surgical setting,
because they have not previously been constructed into a coherent, clinically
realistic plan of care. The purpose of this book is therefore (1) to
consider the relevant psychological concepts that can inform and guide
modern surgical nursing practices, (2) to provide a comprehensive map of
the wider evidence available and (3) to introduce clinically realistic nursing
interventions necessary for the complete psychoeducational
management of adult patients undergoing elective, ambulatory surgery.
nurses working in the field of adult ambulatory surgery or studying
modern surgical nursing practices. We need to re-evaluate nursing
knowledge for this new surgical era so that compelling nursing evidence
can help to guide practice and not remain in the shadows of medical
advances. This book is intended to provoke debate within the profession,
present the case for change and, above all, demonstrate the ability of
nursing knowledge to make a significant contribution to the care required
by patients experiencing modern ambulatory surgery. Much evidence,
within the nursing domain, is widely available to help guide important
global nursing issues in ambulatory surgery.

Saturday, September 13, 2014

DISEASES AND DISORDERS A Nursing Therapeutics Manual THIRD EDITION pdf ebook

As in the first edition, we have included relevant information about Gender and Life Span Considerations, and have enhanced this section with information about racial and ethnic differences in health and disease. As our society has an ever-increasing diversity, we have developed this section so that practitioners have a basis from which to develop culturally competent care. Each entry begins with the Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) category. DRGs were initiated by the Health Care Financing Administration to serve as an organizing framework to grouprelated conditions and to stabilize reimbursements. Because they provide a convenient standard to evaluate hospital care, DRGs are used by institutions and disciplines to measure utilization and to allocate resources. We have included DRGs to indicate the expected norms in average length of stay for each entry. Each entry follows the nursing process, with assessment information incorporated in the History and Physical Assessment sections, the Psychosocial Assessment, and Diagnostic Highlights. Based on requests from our readers and reviewers, we have supplemented information on diagnostic testing from earlier editions to provide normal and abnormal values for the most important diagnostic tests. We have also added a section to explain the rationale for the test. These detailed, specific sections provide the foundation needed to perform a comprehensive assessment of the patient’s condition so that a Primary Nursing Diagnosis can be formulated appropriate to the patient’s specific needs. The Planning and Implementation section is divided into Collaborative and Independent interventions. The intent of the Collaborative section is to detail the goals of a multidisciplinary plan of care to manage the condition or disease. As in the second edition, there is an expanded section on Pharmacologic Highlights that explores commonly used drugs, their doses, mechanisms of action, and rationales for use. The Independent section focuses on independent nursing interventions that demonstrate the core of the art and science of nursing. Each entry then finishes with Documentation Guidelines and Discharge and Home Healthcare Guidelines to help nurses evaluate the outcomes of care and to prepare hospitalized patients for discharge. As with the first and second editions, the idea for the book originated with Joanne Patzek DaCunha, Publisher at F.A. Davis. The authors salute her creativity, perseverance, enthusiasm revision with a minimum of difficulty. We also owe a debt of gratitude to Jeff Sommers for his assistance with manuscript development, editing, proofreading, and supportive cheerleading. Finally we acknowledge with gratitude the hard work that a host of contributors made to the first edition. The entire reason to revise this book is to provide practicing nurses a concise and yet scientifically sound text to guide the professional practice of nursing. The provision of nursing care in the 21st century presents us with overwhelming challenges, and yet nursing is the discipline of choice for millions of practitioners.

Thursday, September 11, 2014


Unit I, Nursing’s Perspective: Past, Present and Future, explores many aspects that are essential to nursing. A historical overview of early leaders and social forces that have influenced the development of nursing practice is provided. The theoretical frameworks for guiding professional practice and the significance of incorporating research into nursing practice are emphasized. The evolution of our current health care delivery system is discussed with attention given to proposals for change. Unit II, Nursing Process, The Standard of Care, explains each component of the nursing process. The nursing process is the framework for delivering holistic care in an organized scientific manner. A chapter on critical thinking leads the unit discussion of the five phases of the nursing process. Unit III, The Therapeutic Nature of Nursing, discusses the caring nature of nursing as demonstrated through therapeutic communication and actions. Nursing, by definition and purpose, is a therapeutic process. Improving interpersonal and therapeutic effectiveness through knowledge and skills are key to this unit presentation. Nurses’ roles in client education are addressed. Complementary and alternative treatment modalities are presented here. Unit IV, The Individual and Health, focuses on the holistic nature of individuals and nursing as a holistic discipline. The impact on an individual's health related behaviors are discussed in relation to the life cycle, aging, stress, culture, self-concept and reaction to loss. Unit V, Professional Accountability, addresses accountability from the professional, legal and ethical perspectives. Documentation and quality management are discussed in detail in this unit. Unit VI, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Interventions, present many of the fundamental skills and tools for providing nursing care. Step-by-step instruction and rationale are provided for each of the skills presented. Unit VII, Nursing Management of Basic Needs, discusses areas of nursing care that are common to every area of practice. Concepts such as safety and infection control, mobility, fluid and electrolyte balance, skin integrity, and nutrition are described. Step-by-step skill presentation with rationale is also presented for each chapter.

Monday, September 8, 2014

Vascular Disease A Handbook for Nurses ebook pdf

Vascular disease is a pathological state of large and medium sized muscular arteries and is triggered by endothelial cell dysfunction. Because of factors like pathogens, oxidized LDL particles and other inflammatory stimuli endothelial cells become activated. This leads to change in their characteristics: endothelial cells start to excrete cytokines and chemokinesand express adhesion molecules on their surface. This in turn results in recruitment of white blood cells (monocytes and lymphocytes), which can infiltrate the blood vessel wall. Stimulation of smooth muscle cell layer with cytokines produced by endothelial cells and recruited white blood cells causes smooth muscle cells to proliferate and migrate towards the blood vessel lumen. The process causes thickening of the vessel wall, forming a plaque consisting of proliferating smooth muscle cells, macrophages and various types oflymphocytes. This plaque result in obstructed blood flow leading to diminished amounts of oxygen and nutrients, that reach the target organ. In the final stages, the plaque may also rupture causing the formation of clots, and as a result strokes. In order to confirm a cerebrovascular disease, few additional tests may be required whenever there are doubts in what the diagnosis concerns. These may include tests such as thecerebral angiography (carotid angiogram). This test is made by inserting a catheter into the patient's artery in the leg with the help of a needle through the vessels in the abdomen and chest, until it reaches the arteries of the neck. The coronary angiogram is basically the same procedure which is however utilized for detecting cardiovascular conditions. The carotid duplex (carotid ultrasound) is another type of noninvasive test which uses ultrasound waves in order to detect plaque, blood clots or any other type of blood flow abnormalities in the carotid arteries. The specialists may detect hemorrhagic strokes with the help of a X-ray computed tomography. They are easily visualized due to the differences in density between the blood, bone and brain tissue. The CT scans are also useful in finding out abnormalities in the heart and in diagnosing cardiovascular conditions.[4] The Doppler ultrasound is a test used to diagnose both cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease. It utilizes high frequency sound waves that are being directed to thevein or artery which presents abnormalities and are then detected on the Doppler. Electroencephalography may be required in order to detect electrical impulses in the brain by placing small metal discs called electrodes on the scalp of the patient. The magnetic resonance imaging technique is able to obtain 3D images of the body structure. The images are very clear and they are produced by using magnetic fields and recent computer technology. Due to the clarity of the pictures, the MRI can detect any signs of prior strokes. The MRI may also be performed on the heart if a cardiovascular disease is suspected. A lumbar puncture may also be performed but this is an invasive test which consists in taking a sample of cerebrospinal fluid from the space surrounding the spinal cord. The purpose of this test is finding traces of blood which may be due to cerebral hemorrhage.[5] Upon suspicion of peripheral vascular disease, the first-line study is the ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI/ABI) which is a measure of the fall in blood pressure in the arteries supplying the legs. An ABPI value that exceeds 0.9 is the confirmation that a peripheral vascular disease is not present. If the value of the ABPI is lower than 0.8, the peripheral vascular disease exists but it is normally a mild case. On the other hand, a value below 0.5 is the proof of a serious vascular condition. (wikipedia)

Friday, September 5, 2014

Caring for Children and Families ebook pdf

This text has been written as a resource for those who provide health care for
children and their families. Contributors to the book are experts from a range
of backgrounds – both in practice and academia. The contributors firmly
believe, that the child comes first and foremost; they believe that each child is
a unique person with individual needs and aspirations – this stance is clearly
reflected in each chapter of the book.
Children deserve the best possible care, and this cannot be provided unless
there is an understanding of the context of children’s lives, both in the community
at large and within healthcare settings. The concept of partnership
focuses upon the need to deliver paediatric care in collaboration with the child
and the family.This text encourages the reader to apply this approach to care
delivery in any situation in which they may be working. Chapter 2 emphasises
the importance of this, looking beyond a disease-orientated approach to one
where the child and her or his family are a clear and central unit.
The principal audience of this text are nursing students, and especially those
who are undertaking NVQ/SNVQ, Access to Nursing and Cadet nursing programmes
of study. It is not, however, a comprehensive book about children’s
nursing, and, as a result, the reader is encouraged to identify further topics of
importance that have not been considered here. Within the text the terms
‘nurse’, ‘student’ and ‘nursing’ have been adopted.The terms and the philosophies
applied to this book can be adapted to suit a number of healthcare
workers at various levels and in a range of settings in order to develop caring
The book presents up-to-date information that the aspiring nurse or child
healthcare provider requires in order to begin to understand how to help children
and families, in both the institutional setting (for example the hospital)
and the community (for example the child’s own home).The material is organised
in such a way that it reflects contemporary practice in a user-friendly
manner; in addition, information is related to clinical practice issues that may
be experienced when working with children and their families. It is not envisaged
that the text be read from cover to cover in one sitting; it has been
designed to be used as a reference book (a resource, a reader) either in the
clinical setting, classroom or in your own home.

Tuesday, August 19, 2014

Advanced Practice Nursing Edition 2 pdf ebook

With information overload a challenge in all of our lives, why should anyone read this book? The answer is simple—this book is not only informative, covering the major issues facing advanced practices nurses (APNs), but it is also vital to understanding the past, present, and future of advanced practice. This effort
weaves together historical views of APNs with present-day issues and trends. The contributors have masterfully analyzed the issues so that the reader will come to know both the larger policy issues facing APNs and how these issues translate into day-to-day care of patients.
The critical examination of financing, values, politics, and intraprofessional education and practice as well as interprofessional relationships combines to bring APNs into sharp focus. The evolution of APNs has been a major event in the history of nursing. While each of the four APN disciplines—clinical nurse specialist,
nurse practitioner, certified nurse midwife, and nurse anesthetist—has a unique history and place within nursing, the commonalities have established a force within health care that has changed the way care is delivered and will continue to change the system. In fact, the commonalities provide a critical basis for forging an even more powerful coalition of APNs to tackle common challenges related to ensuring patients get the best care possible. The social contract that nurses have with the public is unique, and APNs have extended that contract to higher levels of service, decision-making, and accountability.
This book captures the vitality of advanced practice nursing as an aggregated entity. The label of APN is now widely used and recognized by policy makers and patients alike. This represents unprecedented progress in nursing, when few knew what a clinical specialist or nurse practitioner was. We are largely past the days of having to prove the viability, utility, and safety of APNs. We are now constructively examining practice issues in order to advance patient care, not defend the practice.
Each chapter presents perspectives that are useful resources unto themselves. A valuable part of each chapter is the suggested exercises. Readers will appreciate the challenge that these exercises afford them. Taking the time to think through the questions will give APNs and others a chance to explore issues they may not have thought to explore. Even though each chapter is a resource itself, the collection of chapters is so well orchestrated that the full picture is definitely greater than the parts.
Whether this book is used by students, practicing APNs, policy makers, or other health professionals, it will be an extraordinary resource.

Monday, August 18, 2014

Key Nursing Skills PDF ebook

It is important to appreciate that assessment is fundamental to all procedures that a patient may undergo. It does not happen just once but is an ongoing process repeated at regular intervals depending on the patient’s condition.
The most usual time for a thorough assessment to occur is when a patient is admitted to acute or continuing care, but there may be other times when further detailed assessment is necessary. Assessing a patient involves both formal and informal assessment.
Formal assessment includes the gathering of objective information about the patient’s condition by interviewing him or her and obtaining answers to questions. Informal assessment includes the things that you notice about a patient while you are talking to them, and may include physical signs and subjective information such as their mood or behaviour.
The structure of these assessments will be discussed in more detail in this chapter. Assessment of physical vital signs is also undertaken and these are described more fully in Chapter 2. An effective assessment will ensure that a patient receives all the nursing care that is required, and will provide a baseline from which progress can be measured. To ensure that nursing care is planned and delivered effectively a structured approach called the ‘nursing process’ is used. The ‘nursing process’ is a planned, problem-solving approach to meeting a patient’s health care and nursing needs (Lippincott 2000).
It is a systematic sequence of events in which the first stage is to assess a patient’s needs by the collection of objective and subjective information. The next stage is interpretation of this information, which results in the identification of actual or potential problems that the patient is experiencing. This can be called making a nursing diagnosis (Lippincott 2000).
Nursing goals to alleviate or prevent these problems can then be determined and problems prioritized so that the patient’s immediate nursing care needs are met. These goals are used to plan the direction and type of nursing interventions required. They should be patient-focused, and SMART:

Friday, June 6, 2014

Nursing Spectrum Drug Handbook PDF ebook

Nurses need every resource possible to keep their patients safe from untoward drug effects. In the wake of rising public controversy about drug safety and two drug-focused Institute of Medicine (IOM) reports released in 2006, Nursing Spectrum Drug Handbook 2008 is an especially timely publication.
The first report, “Preventing Drug Errors,” found that adverse drug events harm at least 1.5 million Americans each year and that the average hospital patient is subject to at least one medication error per day. The second report, “The Future of Drug Safety: Promoting and Protecting the Health of the Public,” continues the national debate over drug safety that intensified after the 2004 withdrawal of Vioxx, the popular arthritis drug associated with double the risk of myocardial infarction. This report found that problems at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), such as lack of clear regulatory authority, chronic underfunding, and organizational issues, have led to the agency’s failure to fully ensure the safety of the nation’s drug supply.

A major focus of the report—one that’s especially important for nurses—is postmarketing drug surveillance, the process for monitoring a medication’s risk-benefit profile after FDA approval. While the ramifications of these reports ripple through the healthcare industry and the halls of Congress, the implications for nurses are clear.We’ve always served as the defacto drug safety officers in health care.Now it’s clear that we must augment the “five rights” of drug administration—right patient, right drug, right time, right dosage, and right administration route—with enhanced patient education on drugs.We must also monitor patients receiving
both new and old drugs for evidence of drug effectiveness and adverse effects. Nursing Spectrum Drug Handbook 2008 makes these nursing responsibilities easier.Written specifically to help nurses keep their patients safe, it has many safety-themed features—including a 32-page “Safe drug administration”
insert, a photogallery that helps you identify tablets and capsules, and appendices on essential drug topics.
Most importantly, it offers the most succinct, most readable, and most comprehensive drug monographs available in a nursing drug handbook. Each monograph is designed and written for easy understanding and fast access to drug facts, and presented in the format that’s most useful to the busy nurse.

Sunday, May 18, 2014

Nursing Leadership and Management Theories, Processes and Practice PDF EBOOK

Nurses lead and manage nursing care for patients, families, aggregates, and communities in a variety of settings, ranging from ambulatory to community to inpatient. Nurses also lead and manage care across the health-care continuum, including primary health promotion and prevention; secondary skilled, long term, and rehabilitative; and tertiary: emergent, urgent, and acute care. Strategies are drawn from both leadership and management theories. Leadership involves both the leader and the follower. In this text, we have defined Leadership as the process of envisioning a new and better world, communicating that vision to others, motivating others and enticing them to join in efforts to realize the vision, thinking in a different way,
challenging the status quo, taking risks, and facilitating change (Valiga and Grossman). Effective Followers are individuals who work with and support leaders in their efforts to realize a vision by being engaged rather than alienated, suggesting new ideas and options, providing critical feedback on the ideas of others (including the leader), promoting positive relationships within the group, and acting as potential “leaders-in-waiting” (Valiga and Grossman). Management, one of the responsibilities of leadership, is a five-step process that comprises planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling (Garrison, Morgan, and Johnson).
The nurse’s approach to leadership and management reflects the dynamic state of nursing practice and health care. Leadership has evolved from theories of the past, which pronounced that only great and noble men could be leaders, to more current theories that look at leadership as a learned process or a changing role depending on the situation. Management has evolved from competing managerial activities in a hierarchical, bureaucratic organization to complexity theory involving both the physical and social sciences. We have included a discussion of each of these concepts and theories in this textbook.

Wednesday, March 26, 2014

LECTURE NOTES Obstetrics and Gynaecology DIANA HAMILTON-FAIRLEY pdf ebook

Welcome to the second edition of Lecture Notes: Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Professor Geoffrey
Chamberlain asked me to assist him with the combining of the original well-established separate
Lecture Notes on Obstetrics and Lecture Notes on Gynaecology by joining him as editor of this textbook
aimed at undergraduate medical, midwifery and nursing students, junior doctors, nurses and midwives. He told me then that he intended to retire from the editorship for the second edition. I owe him an enormous debt as a teacher, mentor and guide through my career and into the complex area of editing a book with an illustrious list of eminent obstetricians and gynaecologists as its previous editors. He graciously agreed to proof read this edition and I thank him for his helpful contribution to the final version. He continues to work as the Emeritus Professor of History of Medicine at the University of Wales.
In this edition I have asked two of my colleagues at Guy’s, King’s and St Thomas’s Medical School/Guy’s and St Thomas’s Hospital NHS Trust to expand the sections on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Breast Disease to reflect the changes in the undergraduate medical curriculum which combines Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Breast Disease and Sexual Health in several UK universities.
I would like to thank them both: Dr David Lewis FRCP, MD from Sexual Health and Mr Nicholas Beechey Newman FRCS, MS who wrote the chapter on Breast Disease. I think their two chapters (6 and 18) are a valuable addition to the book and I hope you, the reader, will agree.
Feedback from students, Senior Lecturers and Professors has led to many smaller changes in the book including an expansion on the history taking and examination sections. At the end of each chapter
there are five self-assessment questions with the answers/marking schemes given in Answers to selfassessment questions (p. 306). The questions cover the full range that may be found within the examination system in the United Kingdom, both at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, including
extended matched questions, scenarios for practicing history taking as in Objective Structured Clinical
Examination (OSCE) as well as the more traditional Multiple Choice Questions.

Tuesday, March 25, 2014


The Nutrition and Health™ series of books has, an overriding mission to provide health professionals with texts that are considered essential because each includes: (1) a synthesis of the state of the science; (2) timely, in-depth reviews by the leading researchers in their respective fields; (3) extensive, up-to-date, fully annotated reference lists; (4) a detailed index; (5) relevant tables and figures; (6) identification of paradigm
shifts and the consequences; (7) virtually no overlap of information between chapters, but targeted, inter-chapter referrals; (8) suggestions of areas for future research; and (9) balanced, data-driven answers to patient–health professionals’ questions, which are based on the totality of evidence rather than the findings of any single study.
The series volumes are not the outcome of a symposium. Rather, each editor has the potential to examine a chosen area with a broad perspective, both in subject matter as well as in the choice of chapter authors. The international perspective, especially with regard to public health initiatives, is emphasized where appropriate. The editors, whose trainings are both research and practice oriented, have the opportunity to develop a primary objective for their book, define the scope and focus, and then invite the leading authorities from around the world to be part of their initiative.
The authors are encouraged to provide an overview of the field, discuss their own research, and relate the research findings to potential human health consequences. Because each book is developed de novo,
the chapters are coordinated so that the resulting volume imparts greater knowledge than the sum of the information contained in the individual chapters.
Handbook of Nutrition and Pregnancy, edited by Carol J. Lammi-Keefe, Sarah C. Couch, and Elliot H. Philipson, is a very welcome addition to the Nutrition and Health series and fully exemplifies the series’ goals. This volume is especially timely since it includes in-depth discussions relevant to the changing health status of women of childbearing potential around the world. As but one example, there is an extensive chapter on
the obesity epidemic that continues to grow even in underdeveloped nations; the chapter includes an analysis of the comorbidities, such as gestational diabetes and related adverse pregnancy outcomes that continue to be seen in increased numbers annually.
As indicated by E. Albert Reece, MD, PhD, MBA, in the volume’s Foreword, the editors have ...assembled 23 superb chapters on the latest, evidence-based approaches for managing the nutritional requirements of pregnant women in a variety of settings.”

Saturday, March 22, 2014

Human Physiology the Mechanism of Body Function PDF EBOOK

The purpose of this book remains what it was in the first seven editions: to present the fundamental principles and facts of human physiology in a format that is suitable for undergraduate students, regardless of academic backgrounds or fields of study: liberal arts,biology, nursing, pharmacy, or other allied health professions.

The book is also suitable for dental students,and many medical students have also used previous editions to lay the foundation for the more detailed coverage they receive in their courses.

The most significant feature of this book is its clear,up-to-date, accurate explanations of mechanisms,rather than the mere description of facts and events.
Because there are no limits to what can be covered in an introductory text, it is essential to reinforce over and over, through clear explanations, that physiology can
be understood in terms of basic themes and principles.

As evidenced by the very large number of flow diagrams employed, the book emphasizes understanding based on the ability to think in clearly defined chains of causal links. This approach is particularly evident in our emphasis of the dominant theme of human
physiology and of this book—homeostasis as achieved through the coordinated function of homeostatic control systems.

To repeat, we have attempted to explain, integrate,and synthesize information rather than simply to describe, so that students will achieve a working knowledge of physiology, not just a memory bank of physiological facts. Since our aim has been to tell a coherent story, rather than to write an encyclopedia, we have been willing to devote considerable space to the logical development of difficult but essential concepts; examples are second messengers (Chapter 7), membrane potentials (Chapter 8), and the role of intrapleural pressure in breathing (Chapter 15).

In keeping with our goals, the book progresses from the cell to the body, utilizing information and principles developed previously at each level of complexity.
One example of this approach is as follows:the characteristics that account for protein specificity are presented in Part One (Chapter 4), and this concept is used there to explain the “recognition” process exhibited by enzymes.
It is then used again in Part Two (Chapter 7) for membrane receptors, and again in Part
Three (Chapter 20) for antibodies. In this manner, the student is helped to see the basic foundations upon which more complex functions such as homeostatic neuroendocrine and immune responses are built.

Another example: Rather than presenting, in a single chapter, a gland-by-gland description of all the hormones, we give a description of the basic principles of endocrinology in Chapter 10, but then save the details of individual hormones for later
chapters. This permits the student to focus on the functions of the hormones in the context of the homeostatic control systems in which they participate.

Friday, March 21, 2014

Certified Nursing Assistan CNA PDF EBOOK

The Certified Nursing Assistant Examination, referred to as the Exam, consists of both a written examination (the WE) and the clinical skills test (the CST). You must successfully pass both the WE and the CST to pass the certification examination. Specific details on both the WE and the CST, as well as tips on preparing
for each portion, follow.
The written examination (WE) is a computerized exam with a time limit, usually two hours. Test sites are regional or local, depending on the state jurisdiction. We recommend you follow the instructions given by the testing center without exception and arrive at least 30 minutes early or, if you’re traveling a long distance,
arrive a day early to locate the testing center and the most judicious travel route to avoid delays. Two forms of identification are often required, one of which is a picture ID. Because the testing environment is often kept cool, bring a sweater or light jacket for comfort. Remember to leave personal items (purses, cell phones, calculators, and so on) outside the testing areas. You will be furnished with testing materials as needed. Other helpful tips for a successful testing experience are as follows:
. Get a good night’s sleep.
. Don’t work the night before the examination.
. Avoid alcohol or excessive caffeine before the examination.
. Eat a light but well-balanced meal (protein, carbohydrates, and fats plus liquids) while studying and before the Exam. You (and your brain) need energy and maximum recall to be well prepared! Although heavy sugars give you an energy boost, avoid them because you might experience a sudden dip in blood sugar, causing fatigue and nausea. You might also become hungry later when you cannot eat, for example, when taking the
Exam. To avoid sudden dips in blood sugar bring protein snacks, such as dry roasted nuts or cheese rackers.
. Take your time with the test questions, but pace yourself to finish the examination within the allotted time.
. Read each question thoroughly and completely before selecting the best answer.
. Don’t panic if you are not familiar with a question. Remember the Testing Now Tips (TNTs) on your Cram Sheet.
. Believe in yourself; we do! You can succeed!

Passing scores for the WE vary from state to state. Expect to earn at least a 70% for a passing score. You might have to wait two to three days for results. If needed, follow directions for scheduling a repeat examination.
To successfully pass the Critical Skills Test (CST), you must earn a score of at least 70% while following each critical step with 100% accuracy. You should be given the opportunity to correct any missed checkpoints or other aspects of the skill during your performance; however, when you have finished a particular skill and progress to the next one, you will not be able to correct a mistake made on the previous one. If you need to repeat any portion of the CST, you’ll receive directions from the evaluator regarding subsequent testing opportunities according to each state’s testing guidelines. Some helpful tips for success on the CST are as follows:
. Practice, practice, practice!
. Follow each skill/procedure exactly as you learned them in your nurse aide program; this is not the time to improvise or take shortcuts!
. Follow safety standards and include them in your skill performance. This includes, but is not limited to, handwashing, handling of soiled items, and other safety precautions.

These are examples of indirect care standards that will be evaluated with each skill. For example, prior to performing a skill, you must actually use water and wash your hands; the evaluator will tell you after you’ve washed your hands correctly for the first time that you can tell him or her when you would wash your hands rather than actually washing them for each subsequent skill.
. Work confidently and efficiently; you must complete each procedure in a timely manner.
. Remember, the skills test is designed to measure your competency; you will not be given assistance by the evaluator except to remind you of time limitations related to the skill performance.
. Imagine getting the good news: You passed! Imagery is a powerful tool to encourage success.

Find a quiet location each day where you can concentrate and review your notes, textbooks,
CDs/DVDs, this review book, and any other helpful materials.

Friday, February 21, 2014

NANDA, NOC, and NIC Linkages: Nursing Diagnoses, Outcomes, and Interventions PDF EBOOK

This book emphasizes the linkages among the three standardized nursing languages — NANDA, NIC, and NOC. It discusses the need for these linkages as more clinical information systems are developed and used. This edition updates the original, published in 2001.
The purpose is to explain and demonstrate the linkages among the standardized nursing languages. It provides examples of how these linkages can be used in nursing education and practice settings. These worthy objectives are met.
The intended audience includes practicing and student nurses. The authors are well known nurse educators.
The book begins by presenting how to use the linkage book in practice and education. The newest edition shifts the emphasis from just the application of the three standard languages to how they are linked for a strong unified care plan. The book also points outs scientific gaps in need of nursing research. These features are unique to this book and are updates from the previous edition.
This is the only book on the market that truly integrates the linkage aspect and illustrates its need for well-rounded care planning. The new edition is more than justified since it updates the new listing of NANDA, NIC, and NOC. References after each chapter give the reader quick access to additional information
Based on years of research at the University of Iowa, this one-of-a-kind reference provides linkages between three standardized languages recognized by the American Nurses Organization: NANDA, Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC), and Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC). A perfect companion to Dochterman: NIC, 4th Edition and Moorhead: NOC, 3rd Edition, this book is a useful tool for nurses in developing care plans for patients, and for institutions in tracking and quantifying nursing care.
• Links all of the NANDA-approved nursing diagnoses to outcome labels and three levels of suggested interventions
• Major
• Suggested
• Optional

• Uses easy-access, user-friendly tables to show terminology and criteria.
• Presents case studies along with nursing care plans to demonstrate the application of linkages.
• Defines all NANDA, NOC, and NIC labels.
• Makes an excellent companion to the new editions of NIC and NOC.
Complete with the most up-to-date NIC, NOC, and NANDA-I approved lists

Thursday, February 13, 2014

Handbook of Sexual Dysfunction

The area of treatment of sexual disorders has undergone an enormous expansion during the last few decades. The introduction of pharmacological treatment of these disorders (e.g., sildenafil for erectile dysfunction or antidepressants for paraphilias) rekindled the interest of physicians from different disciplines (psychiatrists, urologists, gynecologists) in sexual dysfunctions.

Physicians are finding these disorders amenable to pharmacotherapy. However, the new developments
in the area of “sexual pharmacology” have unfortunately also led to a biological reductionism in the field. In the past, most physicians viewed the etiology of sexual dysfunctions/disorders as mainly psychological, rooted in internal conflicts, deep-seated anxiety, and so on. In the present time, physicians in many
disciplines view sexual dysfunctions as mostly, if not purely, of biological origin and discard any notion of psychological factors in the etiology of sexual problems.

The initial hype about the success rates of sildenafil certainly contributed to this notion. However, clinicians who treat sexual dysfunctions/disorders on a daily basis know that in sexual functioning, psychology and biology are intertwined in a very complicated way.

In light of that, we feel a text that balances these two not contradictory but complementary etiological views would be highly desirable. A synthesis of biology and psychology in the area of etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of sexual dysfunction is sorely needed in the field. This book intends to fill this void.

Saturday, February 1, 2014

An Introduction to Public Health and Epidemiology PDF EBOOK

This book provides an introduction to public health and epidemiology. We hope that by working through all, or sections, of the book the reader will not only increase their knowledge of public health practice but also develop a critical, questioning approach to the application of that knowledge.

Before starting to work on this second edition we asked for feedback from users of the first edition. Based on the feedback received we added two new chapters (1 and 11) and made several other substantial revisions. The first new chapter is
on the history of epidemiology and public health, while Chapter 11 considers what actually changes the public health. Chapters 2 and 7 (on information sources and determinants of health respectively) have been largely rewritten. All the chapters have been brought up to date. However, the basic study guide format remains the same.

Each chapter begins with a list of questions and learning objectives, uses exercises to help illustrate and develop critical thinking on key points and provides the reader with a framework to write their own summary at the end of the chapter.
Changing and protecting the public health requires a broad range of knowledge and skills. These are summarized in the standards developed in the United Kingdom for specialist public health practitioners (comparable standards exist for other countries).

These standards are given below, and they provide a useful checklist for reflecting on your own knowledge and skills. We suggest that you use them as a template to assess your learning needs, process of learning and achievements. They are presented again at the end of each chapter to enable you to reflect on what aspects of these standards that chapter helped you on.

Standards for specialist public health practitioners
1 Surveillance and assessment of the population’s health and well-being:
health needs assessment;
health determinants;
health surveillance.
2 Promoting and protecting the population’s health and well-being:
plan, monitor and evaluate health promotion strategies;
plan, implement, monitor and evaluate prevention and screening
protect population health by managing outbreaks, incidents and emergencies.
3 Developing quality and risk management within an evaluative culture:
assess evidence of effectiveness of health interventions;
improve quality through audit and evaluation;
manage risk to public’s health and well-being.
4 Collaborative working for health:

develop and sustain cross-sectional working;
communicate effectively with the public and others.
5 Developing health programmes and services and reducing inequalities:
develop, implement and evaluate health programmes and services;
facilitate the reduction of inequalities in health.
6 Policy and strategy development and implementation:
shape and influence the development of health and social care policy;
implement strategies to put policies into effect;
assess impact of policies.
7 Working with and for communities:
involve the public and communities as active partners;
empower communities;
advocate for communities.
8 Strategic leadership for health:
develop, sustain and implement a vision and objectives for health;
lead teams and individuals to improve health and reduce inequalities.
9 Research & Development:
appraise, plan and manage research;
develop and implement research findings in practice.
10 Ethically managing self, people and resources:
manage the development and direction of work;
develop capacity and capability to improve health;
deliver effective services, the aim of which is to improve health.