Wednesday, March 26, 2014

LECTURE NOTES Obstetrics and Gynaecology DIANA HAMILTON-FAIRLEY pdf ebook

Welcome to the second edition of Lecture Notes: Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Professor Geoffrey
Chamberlain asked me to assist him with the combining of the original well-established separate
Lecture Notes on Obstetrics and Lecture Notes on Gynaecology by joining him as editor of this textbook
aimed at undergraduate medical, midwifery and nursing students, junior doctors, nurses and midwives. He told me then that he intended to retire from the editorship for the second edition. I owe him an enormous debt as a teacher, mentor and guide through my career and into the complex area of editing a book with an illustrious list of eminent obstetricians and gynaecologists as its previous editors. He graciously agreed to proof read this edition and I thank him for his helpful contribution to the final version. He continues to work as the Emeritus Professor of History of Medicine at the University of Wales.
In this edition I have asked two of my colleagues at Guy’s, King’s and St Thomas’s Medical School/Guy’s and St Thomas’s Hospital NHS Trust to expand the sections on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Breast Disease to reflect the changes in the undergraduate medical curriculum which combines Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Breast Disease and Sexual Health in several UK universities.
I would like to thank them both: Dr David Lewis FRCP, MD from Sexual Health and Mr Nicholas Beechey Newman FRCS, MS who wrote the chapter on Breast Disease. I think their two chapters (6 and 18) are a valuable addition to the book and I hope you, the reader, will agree.
Feedback from students, Senior Lecturers and Professors has led to many smaller changes in the book including an expansion on the history taking and examination sections. At the end of each chapter
there are five self-assessment questions with the answers/marking schemes given in Answers to selfassessment questions (p. 306). The questions cover the full range that may be found within the examination system in the United Kingdom, both at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, including
extended matched questions, scenarios for practicing history taking as in Objective Structured Clinical
Examination (OSCE) as well as the more traditional Multiple Choice Questions.

Tuesday, March 25, 2014


The Nutrition and Health™ series of books has, an overriding mission to provide health professionals with texts that are considered essential because each includes: (1) a synthesis of the state of the science; (2) timely, in-depth reviews by the leading researchers in their respective fields; (3) extensive, up-to-date, fully annotated reference lists; (4) a detailed index; (5) relevant tables and figures; (6) identification of paradigm
shifts and the consequences; (7) virtually no overlap of information between chapters, but targeted, inter-chapter referrals; (8) suggestions of areas for future research; and (9) balanced, data-driven answers to patient–health professionals’ questions, which are based on the totality of evidence rather than the findings of any single study.
The series volumes are not the outcome of a symposium. Rather, each editor has the potential to examine a chosen area with a broad perspective, both in subject matter as well as in the choice of chapter authors. The international perspective, especially with regard to public health initiatives, is emphasized where appropriate. The editors, whose trainings are both research and practice oriented, have the opportunity to develop a primary objective for their book, define the scope and focus, and then invite the leading authorities from around the world to be part of their initiative.
The authors are encouraged to provide an overview of the field, discuss their own research, and relate the research findings to potential human health consequences. Because each book is developed de novo,
the chapters are coordinated so that the resulting volume imparts greater knowledge than the sum of the information contained in the individual chapters.
Handbook of Nutrition and Pregnancy, edited by Carol J. Lammi-Keefe, Sarah C. Couch, and Elliot H. Philipson, is a very welcome addition to the Nutrition and Health series and fully exemplifies the series’ goals. This volume is especially timely since it includes in-depth discussions relevant to the changing health status of women of childbearing potential around the world. As but one example, there is an extensive chapter on
the obesity epidemic that continues to grow even in underdeveloped nations; the chapter includes an analysis of the comorbidities, such as gestational diabetes and related adverse pregnancy outcomes that continue to be seen in increased numbers annually.
As indicated by E. Albert Reece, MD, PhD, MBA, in the volume’s Foreword, the editors have ...assembled 23 superb chapters on the latest, evidence-based approaches for managing the nutritional requirements of pregnant women in a variety of settings.”

Saturday, March 22, 2014

Human Physiology the Mechanism of Body Function PDF EBOOK

The purpose of this book remains what it was in the first seven editions: to present the fundamental principles and facts of human physiology in a format that is suitable for undergraduate students, regardless of academic backgrounds or fields of study: liberal arts,biology, nursing, pharmacy, or other allied health professions.

The book is also suitable for dental students,and many medical students have also used previous editions to lay the foundation for the more detailed coverage they receive in their courses.

The most significant feature of this book is its clear,up-to-date, accurate explanations of mechanisms,rather than the mere description of facts and events.
Because there are no limits to what can be covered in an introductory text, it is essential to reinforce over and over, through clear explanations, that physiology can
be understood in terms of basic themes and principles.

As evidenced by the very large number of flow diagrams employed, the book emphasizes understanding based on the ability to think in clearly defined chains of causal links. This approach is particularly evident in our emphasis of the dominant theme of human
physiology and of this book—homeostasis as achieved through the coordinated function of homeostatic control systems.

To repeat, we have attempted to explain, integrate,and synthesize information rather than simply to describe, so that students will achieve a working knowledge of physiology, not just a memory bank of physiological facts. Since our aim has been to tell a coherent story, rather than to write an encyclopedia, we have been willing to devote considerable space to the logical development of difficult but essential concepts; examples are second messengers (Chapter 7), membrane potentials (Chapter 8), and the role of intrapleural pressure in breathing (Chapter 15).

In keeping with our goals, the book progresses from the cell to the body, utilizing information and principles developed previously at each level of complexity.
One example of this approach is as follows:the characteristics that account for protein specificity are presented in Part One (Chapter 4), and this concept is used there to explain the “recognition” process exhibited by enzymes.
It is then used again in Part Two (Chapter 7) for membrane receptors, and again in Part
Three (Chapter 20) for antibodies. In this manner, the student is helped to see the basic foundations upon which more complex functions such as homeostatic neuroendocrine and immune responses are built.

Another example: Rather than presenting, in a single chapter, a gland-by-gland description of all the hormones, we give a description of the basic principles of endocrinology in Chapter 10, but then save the details of individual hormones for later
chapters. This permits the student to focus on the functions of the hormones in the context of the homeostatic control systems in which they participate.

Friday, March 21, 2014

Certified Nursing Assistan CNA PDF EBOOK

The Certified Nursing Assistant Examination, referred to as the Exam, consists of both a written examination (the WE) and the clinical skills test (the CST). You must successfully pass both the WE and the CST to pass the certification examination. Specific details on both the WE and the CST, as well as tips on preparing
for each portion, follow.
The written examination (WE) is a computerized exam with a time limit, usually two hours. Test sites are regional or local, depending on the state jurisdiction. We recommend you follow the instructions given by the testing center without exception and arrive at least 30 minutes early or, if you’re traveling a long distance,
arrive a day early to locate the testing center and the most judicious travel route to avoid delays. Two forms of identification are often required, one of which is a picture ID. Because the testing environment is often kept cool, bring a sweater or light jacket for comfort. Remember to leave personal items (purses, cell phones, calculators, and so on) outside the testing areas. You will be furnished with testing materials as needed. Other helpful tips for a successful testing experience are as follows:
. Get a good night’s sleep.
. Don’t work the night before the examination.
. Avoid alcohol or excessive caffeine before the examination.
. Eat a light but well-balanced meal (protein, carbohydrates, and fats plus liquids) while studying and before the Exam. You (and your brain) need energy and maximum recall to be well prepared! Although heavy sugars give you an energy boost, avoid them because you might experience a sudden dip in blood sugar, causing fatigue and nausea. You might also become hungry later when you cannot eat, for example, when taking the
Exam. To avoid sudden dips in blood sugar bring protein snacks, such as dry roasted nuts or cheese rackers.
. Take your time with the test questions, but pace yourself to finish the examination within the allotted time.
. Read each question thoroughly and completely before selecting the best answer.
. Don’t panic if you are not familiar with a question. Remember the Testing Now Tips (TNTs) on your Cram Sheet.
. Believe in yourself; we do! You can succeed!

Passing scores for the WE vary from state to state. Expect to earn at least a 70% for a passing score. You might have to wait two to three days for results. If needed, follow directions for scheduling a repeat examination.
To successfully pass the Critical Skills Test (CST), you must earn a score of at least 70% while following each critical step with 100% accuracy. You should be given the opportunity to correct any missed checkpoints or other aspects of the skill during your performance; however, when you have finished a particular skill and progress to the next one, you will not be able to correct a mistake made on the previous one. If you need to repeat any portion of the CST, you’ll receive directions from the evaluator regarding subsequent testing opportunities according to each state’s testing guidelines. Some helpful tips for success on the CST are as follows:
. Practice, practice, practice!
. Follow each skill/procedure exactly as you learned them in your nurse aide program; this is not the time to improvise or take shortcuts!
. Follow safety standards and include them in your skill performance. This includes, but is not limited to, handwashing, handling of soiled items, and other safety precautions.

These are examples of indirect care standards that will be evaluated with each skill. For example, prior to performing a skill, you must actually use water and wash your hands; the evaluator will tell you after you’ve washed your hands correctly for the first time that you can tell him or her when you would wash your hands rather than actually washing them for each subsequent skill.
. Work confidently and efficiently; you must complete each procedure in a timely manner.
. Remember, the skills test is designed to measure your competency; you will not be given assistance by the evaluator except to remind you of time limitations related to the skill performance.
. Imagine getting the good news: You passed! Imagery is a powerful tool to encourage success.

Find a quiet location each day where you can concentrate and review your notes, textbooks,
CDs/DVDs, this review book, and any other helpful materials.