Wednesday, November 28, 2012

Nutrition in Clinical Practice Ebook

Chapter 12

Diet and Cancer
The link between diet and cancer, supported by in vitro, animal, and epidemiologic studies, is convincing. Decisive intervention trials are for the most part lacking, however, because of the protracted time course of carcinogenesis and a lack of reliable surrogate markers in most cases. An exception is studies in populations with well-defined nutrient deficiencies that increase the risk of specific cancers, where supplementation may dramatically reduce risk; the Linxian study in rural China is noteworthy (1,2). Most reviews of diet and cancer cite the work of Doll and Peto (3) and suggest that one-third or more of all cancer is related to nutritional factors and potentially preventable by nutritional means. Dietary factors may influence cancer initiation, promotion, and progression via direct effects on DNA, indirect effects on immune function (see Chapter 11), and overall vitality (see Chapter 45).
As is the case for atherogenesis, the process of carcinogenesis may be affected both favorably and unfavorably by micronutrients and macronutrients. Initiation is fostered by mutagenic exposures, including nutrient compounds, and forestalled by immunosurveillance, the robustness of which is influenced by dietary pattern. Cancer promotion and progression appear to be more meaningfully associated with macronutrient intake and overall health than specific nutrient compounds, although the aggregate influence of certain nutrient groups, such as antioxidants and essential fatty acids may be considerable. Procarcinogens in the diet include heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that result from pyrolysis (i.e., charring); acrylamide formed when starchy foods are cooked at high temperature (4); nitrosamines used or produced in the curing of meats; naturally occurring contaminants, such as aflatoxin B-1; naturally occurring chemicals in plants; and chemicals added to the food supply as a result of agricultural practices and food handling. While all of potential importance, the net effect of carcinogenic compounds in foods is generally thought to be small relative to the effects of dietary pattern on general health, and its profound influence on cancer risk. This contention is highlighted by the presence of naturally occurring mutagens in many plant foods, yet a consistent and strong inverse association between the consumption of such foods and cancer risk. Also germane is the issue of chemical contamination of food; there is widespread concern that pesticide residues on produce, for example, may at times be carcinogenic (5). If so, voluminous data largely from observational trials suggest that the benefits of a generally nutritious diet clearly outweigh any harmful effects of such residues on otherwise healthful foods. Nonetheless, a potential benefit from choosing organic alternatives—particularly in certain food groups (6)—is worthy of both consideration and study.

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Thursday, November 8, 2012

WOMEN’S ENCYCLOPEDIA o f NATURAL MEDICINE ebook pdf

CONTENTS
Foreword . . . . . . . . . ix
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Contributors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
1 Abnormal Uterine Bleeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2 Amenorrhea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3 Cervical Dysplasia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4 Contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
5 Cystitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
6 Endometriosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
7 Fibrocystic Breasts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
--> 8 Genital Herpes . . . . . 99
9 Heart Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
10 Infertililty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
11 Interstitial Cystitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
12 Menopause . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
13 Menstrual Cramps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
14 Osteoporosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
15 Pelvic Inflammatory Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
16 Pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
17 Premenstrual Syndrome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
18 Sexually Transmitted Infections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
19 Uterine Fibroids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
20 Vaginitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Appendix A: General Exercise Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
Appendix B: Body Mass Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
Appendix C: Hormone Replacement Therapy Prescriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Appendix D: Procedures and Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Appendix E: Recommended Screening Tests and Immunizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481

Wednesday, November 7, 2012

The V*lv* anatomy, phisiology, and pathology Pdf Ebook


This is a much needed book for the patient with v*lv*v*g*n*l symptomatology
too often faces the prospect of an incomplete evaluation and misdirected therapies.
There are many reasons for this. Physicians with practice time constraints
magnified by an office full of waiting patients too often begin their physical
examination with the introduction of the v*g*n*l speculum, bypassing the
v*lv*. In addition, the record of diagnostic accuracy of v*g*n*l infections by
physicians shows a high error rate and inaccurate diagnoses lead to inappropriate
-->
therapeutic
interventions, which only prolong and sometimes intensify patient’s symptomatology.
Finally, to a large extent, the care of patients with v*lv*v*g*n*l problems
requires dermatologic insights that are too often lacking for many practitioners.

Friday, September 28, 2012

Maternal - Infant PDF Ebook




Healthy Pregnancy
Basic Care Plan: Prenatal Home Visit
Adolescent Pregnancy
Multiple Gestation
Hyperemesis Gravidarum
Threatened Abortion
Infection
Substance Abuse
Gestational Diabetes
Heart Disease
Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH)
Placenta Previa
Preterm Labor
Preterm Rupture of Membranes
At-Risk Fetus
Labor and Birth
Basic Care Plan: Labor and Vaginal Birth
Basic Care Plan: Cesarean Birth
Induction & Augmentation
Regional Analgesia
Failure to Progress
Fetal Distress
Abruptio Placentae
Prolapsed Cord
Postterm Birth
Precipitous Labor and Birth
HEL.LP/DIC
Fetal Demise
Healthy Puerperium
Basic Care Plan: Vaginal Birth
Basic Care Plan: Cesarean Birth
Basic Care Plan: Postpartum Home Visit
Breast-Feeding
Postpartum Hemorrhage
Episiotomy and Lacerations
Puerperal Infection
Venous Thrombosis
Hematomas
Adolescent Mother
Postpartum Depression
Parents of the At-Risk Newborn
Healthy Newborn
Basic Care Plan: Term Newborn
Basic Care Plan: Newborn Home Visit
Circumcision
Preterm Infant
Small for Gestational Age (SGA, IUGR)
Large for Gestational Age (LGA, IDM)
Postterm Infant
Birth Injury

--> Hyperbilirubinemia
Neonatal Sepsis
HIV
Infant of Substance Abusing Mother

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

Chinese Herbal Medicine Modern Application Ebook PDF




Part I Formulas According to TCM Zang Fu Syndrome
Differentiation
Chapter 1
Lung Syndromes and Formulas .............................................................................3
Chapter 2
Lung and Heart or Spleen Syndromes and Formulas .........................................53
Chapter 3
Spleen and Stomach Syndromes and Formulas...................................................59
Chapter 4
Spleen and Stomach with Heart, Liver, or Gallbladder Syndromes .................153
Chapter 5
Liver Syndromes and Formulas (Appendix: Gallbladder Syndromes) .............165
Chapter 6
Liver and Lung, Kidney Syndromes and Formulas...........................................239
Chapter 7
Heart Syndromes and Formulas.........................................................................251
Chapter 8
Heart and Kidney Syndromes and Formulas.....................................................279
Chapter 9
Kidney Syndromes and Formulas (Urinary Bladder)........................................283
Chapter 10
Kidney and Lung, Spleen Syndromes and Formulas ........................................313
Part II Formulas According to Allopathic Medical Systems
Chapter 11
Blood-Related Disorders ....................................................................................319
Chapter 12
Cancer Disorders ................................................................................................327
Chapter 13
Cardiovascular Disorders ...................................................................................359
Chapter 14
Dermatological Disorders...................................................................................375
Chapter 15
Endocrine Disorders ...........................................................................................387
Chapter 16
Ear, Eye, Nose, and Throat Disorders ...............................................................401
Chapter 17
Gastrointestinal Disorders ..................................................................................427
Chapter 18
Genitourinary Disorders .....................................................................................453
Chapter 19
Gynecological Disorders ....................................................................................465
Chapter 20
Immune System Disorders .................................................................................489
Chapter 21
Infectious Disorders............................................................................................497
Chapter 22
Miscellaneous Disorders ....................................................................................527
Chapter 23
Musculoskeletal Disorders .................................................................................533
Chapter 24
Neurological Disorders.......................................................................................541
Chapter 25
Pediatric Disorders .............................................................................................557
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Chapter 26
Psychological Disorders .....................................................................................569
Chapter 27
Respiratory Disorders.........................................................................................575
Part III Single Herbs Classification
Toxic Herbs ...................................................................................................................................597
The Eighteen Incompatibiles .........................................................................................................599
The Nineteen Antagonisms............................................................................................................600
Table of Abbreviations ...................................................................................................................600
Chapter 28
Release Exterior Herbs.......................................................................................601
Chapter 29
Clear Heat Herbs ................................................................................................605
Chapter 30
Downward Draining Herbs ................................................................................615
Chapter 31
Drain Damp Herbs .............................................................................................619
Chapter 32
Dispel Wind–Damp Herbs .................................................................................623
Chapter 33
Transform Phlegm and Stop Cough Herbs........................................................627
Chapter 34
Aromatic Herbs That Transform Damp.............................................................633
Chapter 35
Relieve Food Stagnation Herbs..........................................................................635
Chapter 36
Regulate Qi Herbs ..............................................................................................637
Chapter 37
Regulate Blood Herbs ........................................................................................641
Chapter 38
Warm Interior and Expel Cold Herbs ................................................................651
Chapter 39
Tonic Herbs ........................................................................................................655
Chapter 40
Stabilize and Binding Herbs ..............................................................................671
Chapter 41
Calming the Spirit Herbs ..................................................................................677
Chapter 42
Aromatic Herbs That Open Orifices ..................................................................681
Chapter 43
Extinguish Wind and Stop Tremor Herbs..........................................................683
Chapter 44
Expel Parasite Herbs ..........................................................................................685
Chapter 45
Anesthetic Pain Relieving Herbs .......................................................................687
Chapter 46
Anti-Tumor Herbs ..............................................................................................689
Chapter 47
External Application Herbs ................................................................................693
Appendices
Appendix 1
Standard Syndrome Differentiation of Traditional Chinese Medicine..............699
Appendix 2
Glossary of Traditional Chinese Medical Terminology ....................................711
Appendix 3
Classical Text Listing .........................................................................................719
Appendix 4
Cross-Reference Pinyin–English Herbs .............................................................723
Appendix 5
Cross-Reference English–Pinyin Herbs .............................................................735
Appendix 6
Cross-Reference Pinyin–Botanical Latin Herbs ................................................747
Appendix 7
Cross-Reference Botanical Latin–Pinyin Herbs ................................................759
Appendix 8
Cross-Reference English–Botanical Latin Herbs ..............................................771
Appendix 9
Cross-Reference Botanical Latin–English Herbs ..............................................783
Appendix 10
Cross-Reference Pinyin–English Herbal Formulas ...........................................795
Appendix 11
Cross-Reference English–Pinyin Herbal Formulas ...........................................811

How to download ?
Please click on image or here

Thursday, September 13, 2012

First Aid for The Family Medicine Ebook PDF

With First Aid for the Family Medicine Boards, we hope to provide residents
and clinicians with the most useful and up-to-date preparation
guide for the American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) certification
and recertification exams. This new addition to the First Aid series
represents an outstanding effort by a talented group of authors and includes
the following:
■ A practical exam preparation guide with resident-tested test-taking
and study strategies
■ Concise summaries of thousands of board-testable topics
■ Hundreds of high-yield tables, diagrams, and illustrations
■ Key facts in the margins highlighting “must know” information for
the boards
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■ Mnemonics throughout, making learning memorable and fun
■ Timely updates and corrections through the First Aid Team’s blog at
www.firstaidteam.com.
Click picture above or click to download PDF

Wednesday, September 12, 2012

Basic Clinical Massage Therapy PDF Ebook

--> Basic Clinical Massage Therapy: Integrating Anatomy and Treatment is primarily a textbook for advanced massage therapy students who have already acquired the basic skills of Swedish massage and are now pursuing additional training in clinical massage therapy. In this book, I define â€oeclinical massage therapy― as the use of manual manipulation of the soft tissues to relieve specific complaints of pain and dysfunction. As its title implies, our book integrates detailed anatomical information with basic clinical massage therapy techniques. By embedding illustrations of internal structures into photographs of live models, we are able to show exactly what muscle is being worked on, where it is, where it is attached, how it can be accessed manually, what kinds of problems it can cause, and one or more basic techniques for effectively treating it. The student can clearly see the involved structures in relation to surrounding structures, surface landmarks, and the therapist's hands. Therefore, this book offers a truly innovative visual and tactile understanding of anatomical spatial relationships integrated with the learning of treatment techniques, which has not been possible with traditional approaches. Our approach is possible only through teamwork. Although I have had chief responsibility for the text and Dave Pounds for the illustrations, we are truly co-authors, in that this project has been planned and executed by both of us working closely together from its very inception. Vicki Overman, an outstanding photographer, has worked with us in the first edition and shared our enthusiasm from the beginning. For the second edition, our photography is by Black Horse Studio in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. In addition to its use as a textbook, Basic Clinical Massage Therapy: Integrating Anatomy and Treatment can also serve in the following roles: A palpatory and muscle anatomy reference for practitioners. The anatomy of muscles and bones is complex, and an accurate knowledge of it is essential to effective treatment. The practitioner must have reliable reference sources to consult. In the past, practitioners have used atlases of anatomy designed chiefly for surgeons. This book is tailored specifically to the needs of the clinical massage therapist. By presenting the anatomy of muscles and bones in the context of the living human body, it bridges the gap between internal muscular and external surface anatomy and allows students and practitioners to see through the surface to the internal structures. A client education tool. One of the biggest difficulties facing a therapist in dealing with clients is explaining where a problem may lie, what structures may be involved, and what type of work is proposed. Currently, practitioners must turn to traditional anatomy references, or to whole or partial skeletons or other educational aids to make such explanations. The therapist can use this book to present necessary information to clients in a way that is easily comprehensible. New to This Edition In addition to correcting a number of errata, we have received feedback from some school owners and instructors, and have made the following additions and changes: We have added a palpation entry for each muscle. In addition to the references to the draping illustrations originally provided, we have added draping to illustrations of therapy. A custom DVD created by Real Bodywork (commissioned by the publisher) now accompanies the book, containing real-time video clips of a number of massage sequences presented in the book. Organization and Structure This book is divided into two parts. Part I, Foundations of Clinical Massage Therapy, pre-sents essential information about the basic principles on which clinical massage therapy is based. The first chapter explains the place of clinical massage therapy in the health field and reviews the essentials about muscle structure and function, body mechanics, basic techniques, and draping. The second chapter is a guide to examination: interviewing, observation, photography, and palpation. It also presents examples of forms to use and covers communication with physicians and other health professionals. Part II, Approaching Treatment, constitutes the â€oemeat― of the book. We have organized the chapters in this part into body regions that have functional, topographical, and clinical coherence. These regions are: head, face, and neck shoulder, chest, and upper back arm and hand vertebral column low back and abdomen pelvis thigh leg, ankle, and foot Each Part II chapter has the same internal structure. This rigorous internal consistency is deliberate: Learning is based on repetition, and a repetitive organization allows the reader to more easily process and internalize information. Each chapter, therefore, has the following components: Overview of the Region. Here, we review the muscular and skeletal components of the region under discussion, and offer observations on conditions that typically cause pain and dysfunction in that region. Extensive anatomy plates, presented in a horizontal (â€oelandscape―) format, depict in detail the internal anatomy. Labels point out each pertinent structure and are keyed to the text discussion. Muscle Sections. Each muscle of that region is then discussed. These sections are distinguished by their use of various icons that highlight key pieces of information. Pronunciation. As communication between massage therapists and other members of the health care community continues to increase, it is important to know how to pronounce each muscle name correctly. We use a phonetic pronunciation key that is easy to decipher. Etymology. A brief derivation of each muscle name is given. Etymologies are extremely helpful in learning and remembering anatomical structures. Overview. Here, we give a succinct but thorough overview of the structure and function of the muscle. We also review potential causes of pain and dysfunction that may affect the muscle. Comments. Where appropriate, interesting or esoteric comments about the muscle are included. For instance, we point out that biceps brachii resides on the humerus but has no attachments to it, and that in addition to being a flexor it is the most powerful supinator of the forearm.
download plese click here

Thursday, July 26, 2012

Complementary Althernative Therapies in Nursing PDF

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Alternative medicine is any practice claiming to heal "that does not fall within the realm of conventional medicine."It may be based on historical or cultural traditions, rather than on scientific evidence.Alternative medicine is frequently grouped with complementary medicine or integrative medicine, which, in general, refers to the same interventions when used in conjunction with mainstream techniques, under the umbrella term complementary and alternative medicine, or CAM. Critics maintain that the terms “complementary” and “alternative medicine” are deceptive euphemisms meant to give an impression of medical authority.A 1998 systematic review of studies assessing its prevalence in 13 countries concluded that about 31% of cancer patients use some form of complementary and alternative medicine.Alternative medicine varies from country to country. Jurisdictions where alternative medical practices are sufficiently widespread may license and regulate them. Edzard Ernst has said that in Austria and Germany complementary and alternative medicine is mainly in the hands of physicians, while some estimates suggest that at least half of American alternative practitioners are physicians. In Germany herbs are tightly regulated: half are prescribed by doctors and covered by health insurance based on their Commission E legislation.Alternative medicine methods are diverse in their foundations and methodologies. Methods may incorporate or base themselves on traditional medicine, folk knowledge, spiritual beliefs, or newly conceived approaches to healing."Although heterogeneous, the major CAM systems have many common characteristics, including a focus on individualizing treatments, treating the whole person, promoting self-care and self-healing, and recognizing the spiritual nature of each individual. In addition, many CAM systems have characteristics commonly found in mainstream healthcare, such as a focus on good nutrition and preventive practices. Unlike mainstream medicine, CAM often lacks or has only limited experimental and clinical study; however, scientific investigation of CAM is beginning to address this knowledge gap. Thus, boundaries between CAM and mainstream medicine, as well as among different CAM systems, are often blurred and are constantly changing."Claims about the efficacy of alternative medicine tend to lack evidence, and have been shown to repeatedly fail during testing. Some researchers state that the evidence-based approach to defining CAM is problematic because some CAM is tested, and research suggests that many mainstream medical techniques lack solid evidence. please download pdf here

Wednesday, April 25, 2012

Heart Deseas Diagnosis and Therapy Ebook PDF

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1. Acute Myocardial Infarction ............................................................ 1
2. Complications of Myocardial Infarction and Postinfarction
Care ............................................................................................. 69
3. Cardiogenic Shock ........................................................................ 109
4. Angina ........................................................................................... 127
5. Heart Failure ................................................................................. 175
6. Arrhythmias .................................................................................. 213
7. Cardiac Arrest ............................................................................... 289
8. Hypertension ................................................................................. 299
9. Dyslipidemias................................................................................ 345
10. Aortic Dissection .......................................................................... 369
11. Valvular Heart Diseases and Rheumatic Fever............................ 375
12. Infective Endocarditis ................................................................... 415
13. Pericarditis and Myocarditis ......................................................... 427
14. Cardiomyopathy ............................................................................ 443
15. Syncope ......................................................................................... 473
16. Preoperative Management of Cardiac Patients Undergoing
Noncardiac Surgery .................................................................. 491

Wednesday, April 18, 2012

Case Study in Medical Imaging PDF

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This book is written as a system-based clinical–radiological review providing images
from the latest available imaging modalities and covers all major diseases that are
encountered in everyday clinical practice. A problem-orientated approach is used. Each
chapter contains a collection of clinical cases each with a short clinical description and
initial imaging followed by pertinent questions regarding the imaging findings (colour
coded in red outline). The second part of each chapter contains the case diagnosis, a
discussion of the role of imaging in the presenting problem, a recommended sequence
for further imaging evaluation, and illustrative examples of the same disease using
different imaging modalities for further investigation. Images of conditions in the
differential diagnosis are also provided (colour coded in blue outline).
This book is written by experienced radiologists currently working in undergraduate
and postgraduate medical education. The cases are a collection of their illustrative
teaching material.
click here for download ebook

Friday, March 16, 2012

Nursing Theory Ebook PDF

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Instruction : please click on image to download













Nursing theory is the term given to the body of knowledge that is used to define or explain various aspects of the profession of nursing 

Types of nursing theories 

Grand nursing theories
Grand nursing theories have the broadest scope and present general concepts and propositions. Theories at this level may both reflect and provide insights useful for practice but are not designed for empirical testing. This limits the use of grand nursing theories for directing, explaining, and predicting nursing in particular situations. Theories at this level are intended to be pertinent to all instances of nursing.


Mid-range nursing theories
Middle-range nursing theories are narrower in scope than grand nursing theories and offer an effective bridge between grand nursing theories and nursing practice. They present concepts and propositions at a lower level of abstraction and hold great promise for increasing theory-based research and nursing practice strategies.


Nursing practice theories
Nursing practice theories have the most limited scope and level of abstraction and are developed for use within a specific range of nursing situations. Nursing practice theories provide frameworks for nursing interventions, and predict outcomes and the impact of nursing practice.

Major nursing theorists and theories
  • Helen Erickson
  • Virginia Henderson - Henderson's need theory
  • Imogene King
  • Madeleine Leininger
  • Betty Neuman - Neuman systems model
  • Margaret A. Newman - Health as expanding consciousness theory
  • Dorothea Orem - Self-care deficit nursing theory
  • Ida Jean Orlando (Pelletier)
  • Ramona T Mercer - Maternal role attainment theory
  • Anne Casey - Casey's model of nursing
  • Hildegard Peplau - Theory of interpersonal relations
  • Rosemarie Rizzo-Parse - Human becoming theory
  • Isabel Hampton Robb
  • Nancy Roper, Winifred W. Logan, and Alison J. Tierney - Roper-Logan-Tierney model of nursing
  • Martha E. Rogers - Science of unitary human beings
  • Callista Roy - Adaptation model of nursing
  • Katharine Kolcaba
  • Phil Barker - Tidal Model
  • Moyra Allen - McGill model of nursing
  • Erickson, Tomlin & Swain - Modeling and Role-Modeling
  • Katie Eriksson
  • Dr. Jean Watson
  • Paterson & Zderad
  • Boykin & Schoenhofer
Purposely omitted from this list is that most famous of all nurses, Florence Nightingale. Nightingale never actually formulated a theory of nursing science but was posthumously accredited with same by others who categorized her personal journaling and communications into a theoretical framework.
Also not included are the many nurses who improved on these theorists' ideas without developing their own theoretical vision.
 from wikipedia

download ebook here
.

Wednesday, February 15, 2012

EVIDENCE BASED CARDIOLOGY EBOOK

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Abbreviations commonly used in this book

AADs antiarrhythmic drugs
ABI Ankle Brachial Index
ACC American College of Cardiology
ACD absolute claudication distance
ACE angiotensin - converting enzyme
ACS acute coronary syndrome
ADA adenine deaminase
ADMA asymmetric dimethylarginin
AF atrial fi brillation
AHA American Heart Association
AIS acute ischemic stroke
ALI Acute limb ischemia
AMI acute myocardial infarction
AMR antibody - mediated rejection; acute mitral
regurgitation
AR aortic regurgitation
ARB angiotensin receptor blockers
ARF acute rheumatic fever
ARR absolute risk reduction
ARVC arrhythmogenic right ventricular
cardiomyopathy
ARVD arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia
AS aortic stenosis
ASA acetylsalicylic acid
ASD atrial septal defect
ASMR age - standardized mortality rates
ATP adenosine triphosphate
AVA aortic valve area
AVB atrioventricular block
AVR aortic valve replacement
AVSD atrioventricular septal defect
AVV atrioventricular valve
BAV bicuspid aortic valve
BNP brain natriuretic peptide
BUN blood urea nitrogen
CABG coronary artery bypass graft
CAD coronary artery disease
CAV cardiac allograft vasculopathy
CBF cerebral/coronary blood fl ow
CCB calcium channel blocker
CCC Chagas ’ cardiomyopathy
CCMR chronic compensated mitral regurgitation
CDMR chronic decompensated mitral regurgitation
CETP cholesteryl ester transfer protein
CHD coronary heart disease
CHF congestive heart failure
CK creatine kinase
CKD chronic kidney disease
CLI critical limb ischemia
CMR cardiac magnetic resonance
CMV cytomegalovirus
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CPVT catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular
tachycardia
Cr Creatinine
CRP C - reactive protein
CSS carotid sinus syndrome
CTA computed tomographic angiography
CTEPH chronic thromboembolic pulmonary
hypertension
CTI cavotricuspid isthmus
CTPA computed tomographic pulmonary
angiography
CVD cardiovascular disease
CVRF cardiovascular risk factors
DAD delayed afterdepolarizations
DALYs disability - adjusted life - years
DCM dilated cardiomyopathy
DBP diastolic blood pressure
DSA digital subtraction angiography
EAD early afterdepolarizations
EBV Epstein – Barr virus
ECMV encephalomyocarditis virus
EF ejection fraction
EKG electrocardiogram
EMB endomyocardial biopsy
EPS electrophysiologic testing
ESC European Society of Cardiology
ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate
FISH fl uorescence in situ hybridization
GAS group A streptococcal
GFR glomerular fi ltration rate
GSD glycogen storage disease
HAART highly active antiretroviral therapy
HCM hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
HCt haematocrit
HDL high-density lipoprotein
HFSA Heart Failure Society of America
HIC high - income countries
HIT heparin - induced thrombocytopenia
HIV human immunodefi ciency virus
HRQoL health - related quality of life
IART intra - atrial re - entrant tachycardia
ICD implantable cardioverter - defi brillator; initial
claudication distance
ICH intracerebral hemorrhage
IE infective endocarditis
IFG impaired fasting glucose
IGT impaired glucose tolerance
ILR implantable loop recorder
IMH intramural hematoma
INR international normalized ratio
ISHLT International Society for Heart and Lung
Transplantation
IV intravenous
IVUS intravascular ultrasound
LCSD left cardiac sympathetic denervation
LDH lactate dehydrogenase
LDL low - density lipoprotein
LMIC low - and middle - income countries
LMWH low molecular weight heparin
LoB line of block
LR likelihood ratio
LSCA left subclavian artery
LSD lysosomal storage disorders
LV left ventricle/ventricular
LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction
LVH left ventricular hypertrophy
LVOT LV outfl ow tract
LVOTO left ventricular outfl ow tract obstructions
LVSD left ventricular systolic dysfunction
MACE major adverse cardiovascular events
MCOT mobile cardiac outpatient telemetry
MDTD maximum daily therapeutic dose
METS metabolic equivalents
MI myocardial infarction
MS mitral stenosis
MTT Myocarditis Treatment Trial
MUFA monounsaturated fatty acids
MVR mitral valve replacemen

NCD    non - communicable  diseases
 NNT    number  needed  to  treat
 NRT    nicotine  replacement  therapy
 NSAIDs    non - steroidal  anti - infl  ammatory drugs
 NSVT    non - sustained  ventricular  tachycardia
 NVAF    non - valvular  atrial  fi  brillation
 OAC    oral  anticoagulants
 OLAT    organized  left  atrial  tachyarrhythmia
 OR    odds  ratio
 PAD    peripheral  arterial  disease
 PAH    pulmonary  arterial  hypertension
 PAP    pulmonary  artery  pressures
 PARs    population - attributable  risks
 PAU    penetrating  atherosclerotic  ulcer
 PBAV    percutaneous  balloon  aortic  valvuloplasty
 PBMV    percutaneous  balloon  mitral  valvuloplasty
 PCA    percutaneous  angioplasty
 PCI    percutaneous  coronary  intervention
 PDA    patent  ductus  arteriosus
 PDGF    platelet - derived  growth  factor
 PFO    patent  foramen  ovale
 POTS    postural  orthostatic  tachycardia  syndrome
 PPA    plexogenic  pulmonary  arteriopathy
 PR    pulmonary  regurgitation
 PS    pulmonary  stenosis
 PSVT    paroxysmal  supraventricular  tachycardia
 PTLD    post - transplant  lymphoproliferative  disorder
 PUFA    polyunsaturated  fatty  acids
 PV    pulmonary  valve
 PVAR    paravalvular  aortic  regurgitation
 PVE    prosthetic  valve  endocarditis
 PVI    pulmonary  vein  isolation
 PVR    pulmonary  vascular  resistance
 PVS    pulmonary  valve  stenosis
 PVT    prosthetic  valve  thrombosis
 QALYs    quality - adjusted  life - years
 QoL    quality  of  life
 RAS    renin - angiotensin  system
 RCT    randomized  controlled/clinical  trial
 RF    radiofrequency
 RHD    rheumatic  heart  disease
 RR    relative  risk
 RRR    relative  risk  reduction
 RV    right  ventricle/ventricular
 SAECG    signal - averaged  ECG
 SAH    subarachnoid  hemorrhage
 SAM    systolic  anterior  motion
 SAS    subvalvar  aortic  stenosis
 SBP    systolic  blood  pressure
 SFA    saturated  fatty  acids
 SIDS    sudden  infant  death  syndrome
 SND    sinus  node  dysfunction
 SNPs    single  nucleotide  polymorphisms
 STEMI    ST segment elevated myocardial infarction

SUNDS    sudden  unexplained  nocturnal  death
syndrome
 SVAS    supravalvar  aortic  stenosis
 TAVR    transcatheter  aortic  valve  replacement
 TCPC    total  cavopulmonary  connection
 TE    thromboembolic
 TEE    transesophageal  echocardiography
 TGA    transposition of the great arteries
 TIA    transient  ischemic  attack
 TLOC    transient  loss  of  consciousness
 TOF    tetralogy  of  Fallot
 TR    tricuspid  regurgitation

TSH    thyroid - stimulating  hormone
 TTE    transthoracic  echocardiography
 TV    tricuspid  valve
 TWA    T - wave  alternans
 UFH    unfractionated  heparin
 VF    ventricular  fi  brillation
 VKAs    vitamin  K  antagonists
 VSD    ventricular  septal  defect
 VT    ventricular  tachycardia
 VTE    venous  thromboembolism
 VUI    venous  ultrasound  imaging
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