Abbreviations commonly used in this book

AADs antiarrhythmic drugs
ABI Ankle Brachial Index
ACC American College of Cardiology
ACD absolute claudication distance
ACE angiotensin - converting enzyme
ACS acute coronary syndrome
ADA adenine deaminase
ADMA asymmetric dimethylarginin
AF atrial fi brillation
AHA American Heart Association
AIS acute ischemic stroke
ALI Acute limb ischemia
AMI acute myocardial infarction
AMR antibody - mediated rejection; acute mitral
AR aortic regurgitation
ARB angiotensin receptor blockers
ARF acute rheumatic fever
ARR absolute risk reduction
ARVC arrhythmogenic right ventricular
ARVD arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia
AS aortic stenosis
ASA acetylsalicylic acid
ASD atrial septal defect
ASMR age - standardized mortality rates
ATP adenosine triphosphate
AVA aortic valve area
AVB atrioventricular block
AVR aortic valve replacement
AVSD atrioventricular septal defect
AVV atrioventricular valve
BAV bicuspid aortic valve
BNP brain natriuretic peptide
BUN blood urea nitrogen
CABG coronary artery bypass graft
CAD coronary artery disease
CAV cardiac allograft vasculopathy
CBF cerebral/coronary blood fl ow
CCB calcium channel blocker
CCC Chagas ’ cardiomyopathy
CCMR chronic compensated mitral regurgitation
CDMR chronic decompensated mitral regurgitation
CETP cholesteryl ester transfer protein
CHD coronary heart disease
CHF congestive heart failure
CK creatine kinase
CKD chronic kidney disease
CLI critical limb ischemia
CMR cardiac magnetic resonance
CMV cytomegalovirus
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CPVT catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular
Cr Creatinine
CRP C - reactive protein
CSS carotid sinus syndrome
CTA computed tomographic angiography
CTEPH chronic thromboembolic pulmonary
CTI cavotricuspid isthmus
CTPA computed tomographic pulmonary
CVD cardiovascular disease
CVRF cardiovascular risk factors
DAD delayed afterdepolarizations
DALYs disability - adjusted life - years
DCM dilated cardiomyopathy
DBP diastolic blood pressure
DSA digital subtraction angiography
EAD early afterdepolarizations
EBV Epstein – Barr virus
ECMV encephalomyocarditis virus
EF ejection fraction
EKG electrocardiogram
EMB endomyocardial biopsy
EPS electrophysiologic testing
ESC European Society of Cardiology
ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate
FISH fl uorescence in situ hybridization
GAS group A streptococcal
GFR glomerular fi ltration rate
GSD glycogen storage disease
HAART highly active antiretroviral therapy
HCM hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
HCt haematocrit
HDL high-density lipoprotein
HFSA Heart Failure Society of America
HIC high - income countries
HIT heparin - induced thrombocytopenia
HIV human immunodefi ciency virus
HRQoL health - related quality of life
IART intra - atrial re - entrant tachycardia
ICD implantable cardioverter - defi brillator; initial
claudication distance
ICH intracerebral hemorrhage
IE infective endocarditis
IFG impaired fasting glucose
IGT impaired glucose tolerance
ILR implantable loop recorder
IMH intramural hematoma
INR international normalized ratio
ISHLT International Society for Heart and Lung
IV intravenous
IVUS intravascular ultrasound
LCSD left cardiac sympathetic denervation
LDH lactate dehydrogenase
LDL low - density lipoprotein
LMIC low - and middle - income countries
LMWH low molecular weight heparin
LoB line of block
LR likelihood ratio
LSCA left subclavian artery
LSD lysosomal storage disorders
LV left ventricle/ventricular
LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction
LVH left ventricular hypertrophy
LVOT LV outfl ow tract
LVOTO left ventricular outfl ow tract obstructions
LVSD left ventricular systolic dysfunction
MACE major adverse cardiovascular events
MCOT mobile cardiac outpatient telemetry
MDTD maximum daily therapeutic dose
METS metabolic equivalents
MI myocardial infarction
MS mitral stenosis
MTT Myocarditis Treatment Trial
MUFA monounsaturated fatty acids
MVR mitral valve replacemen

NCD    non - communicable  diseases
 NNT    number  needed  to  treat
 NRT    nicotine  replacement  therapy
 NSAIDs    non - steroidal  anti - infl  ammatory drugs
 NSVT    non - sustained  ventricular  tachycardia
 NVAF    non - valvular  atrial  fi  brillation
 OAC    oral  anticoagulants
 OLAT    organized  left  atrial  tachyarrhythmia
 OR    odds  ratio
 PAD    peripheral  arterial  disease
 PAH    pulmonary  arterial  hypertension
 PAP    pulmonary  artery  pressures
 PARs    population - attributable  risks
 PAU    penetrating  atherosclerotic  ulcer
 PBAV    percutaneous  balloon  aortic  valvuloplasty
 PBMV    percutaneous  balloon  mitral  valvuloplasty
 PCA    percutaneous  angioplasty
 PCI    percutaneous  coronary  intervention
 PDA    patent  ductus  arteriosus
 PDGF    platelet - derived  growth  factor
 PFO    patent  foramen  ovale
 POTS    postural  orthostatic  tachycardia  syndrome
 PPA    plexogenic  pulmonary  arteriopathy
 PR    pulmonary  regurgitation
 PS    pulmonary  stenosis
 PSVT    paroxysmal  supraventricular  tachycardia
 PTLD    post - transplant  lymphoproliferative  disorder
 PUFA    polyunsaturated  fatty  acids
 PV    pulmonary  valve
 PVAR    paravalvular  aortic  regurgitation
 PVE    prosthetic  valve  endocarditis
 PVI    pulmonary  vein  isolation
 PVR    pulmonary  vascular  resistance
 PVS    pulmonary  valve  stenosis
 PVT    prosthetic  valve  thrombosis
 QALYs    quality - adjusted  life - years
 QoL    quality  of  life
 RAS    renin - angiotensin  system
 RCT    randomized  controlled/clinical  trial
 RF    radiofrequency
 RHD    rheumatic  heart  disease
 RR    relative  risk
 RRR    relative  risk  reduction
 RV    right  ventricle/ventricular
 SAECG    signal - averaged  ECG
 SAH    subarachnoid  hemorrhage
 SAM    systolic  anterior  motion
 SAS    subvalvar  aortic  stenosis
 SBP    systolic  blood  pressure
 SFA    saturated  fatty  acids
 SIDS    sudden  infant  death  syndrome
 SND    sinus  node  dysfunction
 SNPs    single  nucleotide  polymorphisms
 STEMI    ST segment elevated myocardial infarction

SUNDS    sudden  unexplained  nocturnal  death
 SVAS    supravalvar  aortic  stenosis
 TAVR    transcatheter  aortic  valve  replacement
 TCPC    total  cavopulmonary  connection
 TE    thromboembolic
 TEE    transesophageal  echocardiography
 TGA    transposition of the great arteries
 TIA    transient  ischemic  attack
 TLOC    transient  loss  of  consciousness
 TOF    tetralogy  of  Fallot
 TR    tricuspid  regurgitation

TSH    thyroid - stimulating  hormone
 TTE    transthoracic  echocardiography
 TV    tricuspid  valve
 TWA    T - wave  alternans
 UFH    unfractionated  heparin
 VF    ventricular  fi  brillation
 VKAs    vitamin  K  antagonists
 VSD    ventricular  septal  defect
 VT    ventricular  tachycardia
 VTE    venous  thromboembolism
 VUI    venous  ultrasound  imaging
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