Unit I, Nursing’s Perspective: Past, Present and Future, explores many aspects that are essential to nursing. A historical overview of early leaders and social forces that have influenced the development of nursing practice is provided. The theoretical frameworks for guiding professional practice and the significance of incorporating research into nursing practice are emphasized. The evolution of our current health care delivery system is discussed with attention given to proposals for change. Unit II, Nursing Process, The Standard of Care, explains each component of the nursing process. The nursing process is the framework for delivering holistic care in an organized scientific manner. A chapter on critical thinking leads the unit discussion of the five phases of the nursing process. Unit III, The Therapeutic Nature of Nursing, discusses the caring nature of nursing as demonstrated through therapeutic communication and actions. Nursing, by definition and purpose, is a therapeutic process. Improving interpersonal and therapeutic effectiveness through knowledge and skills are key to this unit presentation. Nurses’ roles in client education are addressed. Complementary and alternative treatment modalities are presented here. Unit IV, The Individual and Health, focuses on the holistic nature of individuals and nursing as a holistic discipline. The impact on an individual's health related behaviors are discussed in relation to the life cycle, aging, stress, culture, self-concept and reaction to loss. Unit V, Professional Accountability, addresses accountability from the professional, legal and ethical perspectives. Documentation and quality management are discussed in detail in this unit. Unit VI, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Interventions, present many of the fundamental skills and tools for providing nursing care. Step-by-step instruction and rationale are provided for each of the skills presented. Unit VII, Nursing Management of Basic Needs, discusses areas of nursing care that are common to every area of practice. Concepts such as safety and infection control, mobility, fluid and electrolyte balance, skin integrity, and nutrition are described. Step-by-step skill presentation with rationale is also presented for each chapter.